Newtonian Newtoni (#) Fr.: newtonien Of or pertaining to Sir Isaac Newton or to his theories or discoveries. Newtonian, from → Newton + -ian a suffix forming adjectives. |
Newtonian approximation nazdineš-e Newtoni Fr.: approximation newtonienne A particular solution of the → general relativity when the → gravitational mass is small. The → space-time is then approximated to the → Minkowski's and this leads to → Newtonian mechanics. → Newtonian; → approximation. |
Newtonian constant of gravitation pâyâ-ye gerâneš-e Newton Fr.: constante de la gravitation newtonienne Same as the → gravitational constant. → Newtonian; → constant; → gravitation. |
Newtonian cosmology keyhânšenâsi-ye Newtoni Fr.: cosmologie newtonienne The use of → Newtonian mechanics to derive homogeneous and isotropic solutions of → Einstein's field equations, which represent models of expanding Universe. The Newtonian cosmology deviates from the prediction of → general relativity in the general case of anisotropic and inhomogeneous models. |
Newtonian fluid šârre-ye Newtoni Fr.: fluide newtonien Any → fluid with a constant → viscosity at a given temperature regardless of the rate of → shear. |
Newtonian focus kânun-e Newton, ~ Newtoni Fr.: foyer de Newton The focus obtained by diverting the converging light beam of a reflecting telescope to the side of the tube. |
Newtonian limit hadd-e Newtoni Fr.: limite newtonienne The limit attained by → general relativity when velocities are very smaller than the → speed of light or gravitational fields are weak. This limit corresponds to the transition between general relativity and the → Newtonian mechanics. See also → Newtonian approximation. |
Newtonian mechanics mekânik-e Newtoni (#) Fr.: mécanique newtonienne A system of mechanics based on → Newton's law of gravitation and its derivatives. Same as → classical mechanics. |
Newtonian potential tavand-e Newtoni Fr.: potentiel newtonien A potential in a field of force obeying the inverse-square law such as → gravitational potential. |
Newtonian principle of relativity parvaz-e bâzânigi-ye Newton Fr.: principe de relativité de Newton The Newton's equations of motion, if they hold in any → reference frame, they are valid also in any other reference frame moving with uniform velocity relative to the first. → Newtonian; → principle; → relativity. |
Newtonian relativity bâzânigi-ye Newtoni Fr.: relativité newtonienne The laws of physics are unchanged under → Galilean transformation. This implies that no mechanical experiment can detect any intrinsic diff between two → inertial frames. Same as → Galilean relativity. → Newton; → relativity. |
Newtonian telescope durbin-e Newton, teleskop-e ~ Fr.: télescope de Newton, ~ newtonien A telescope with a concave paraboloidal objective mirror and a small plane mirror that reflects rays from the primary mirror laterally outside the tube where the image is viewed with an eyepiece. |
post-Newtonian expansion sopÃ¢neš-e pasâ-Newtoni Fr.: développement post-newtinien |
post-Newtonian formalism disegerÃ¢yi-ye pasâ-Newtoni Fr.: formalisme post-newtonien An approximate version of → general relativity that applies when the → gravitational field is → weak, and the matter → velocity is → small. Post-Newtonian formalism successfully describes the gravitational field of the solar system. It can also be applied to situations involving compact bodies with strong internal gravity, provided that the mutual gravity between bodies is weak. It also provides a foundation to calculate the → gravitational waves emitted by → compact binary star systems, as well as their orbital evolution under radiative losses. The formalism proceeds from the Newtonian description and then, step by step, adds correction terms that take into account the effects of general relativity. The correction terms are ordered in a systematic way (from the largest effects to the smallest ones), and the progression of ever smaller corrections is called the → post-Newtonian expansion. |
XMM-Newton XMM-Newton Fr.: XMM-Newton A European Space Agency's satellite, launched on 10 December 1999 and designed for the observation of → X-rays emitted by astronomical objects. The satellite carries three very advanced X-ray telescopes. The three corresponding European Photon Imaging Cameras (EPIC) are sensitive over the energy range 0.2 keV to 12 keV. Other instruments on-board are two reflection grating spectrometers which are sensitive below about 2 keV, and a 30 cm diameter → Ritchey-Chretien optical/UV telescope. The telescope moves in a highly elliptical orbit, traveling out to nearly one third of the distance to the Moon and enabling long, uninterrupted observations of faint → X-ray sources. The original mission lifetime was two years, it has now been extended for further observations until at least 2010. Among recent results obtained using XMM-Newton one can mention an intermediate-mass black hole of over 500 solar masses in the galaxy ESO 243-49 (Nature 460, 73, 2009) and broad line emission from iron K- and L-shell transitions in the active galaxy 1H 0707-495 (Nature 459, 540, 2009). See also → X-ray astronomy. XMM, from "X-ray Multi-Mirror;" Newton, in honor of Sir Isaac Newton, → newton. |