An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory



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Number of Results: 129 Search : red
far infrared
  فروسرخ ِ دور   
forusorx-e dur (#)

Fr.: infrarouge lointain   

Infrared radiation in the wavelength range (25-40) to (200-350) microns emitted by cold molecular/dust clouds.

far; → infrared.

  فروسرخ ِ دور   
forusorx-e dur (#)

Fr.: infrarouge lointain   

The portion of the → electromagnetic radiation in the wavelength range between about 30 and 300 → microns. See also: → infrared radiation, → near-infrared, → mid-infrared, → submillimeter radiation.

far; → infrared.

first dredge-up
  برونکشید ِ نخست   
borunkašid-e naxost

Fr.: premier dragage   

The → dredge-up occurring after core hydrogen burning as the core contracts before helium burning ignites (on the ascending giant branch). The hydrogen envelope becomes convective and this convective zone penetrates deep into the core dredging up material that has been processed by the central nuclear reactions. As a result the abundances of helium and nitrogen are boosted.

first; → dredge-up.

first-order predicate calculus
  افماریک ِ فراسنی ِ رایه‌ی ِ نخست   
afmârik-e farâsani-ye râye-ye naxost

Fr.: cacul des prédicats du premier ordre   

Same as → first-order logic.

first; → order; → predicate; → calculus.

Five-hundred-meter Aperture Spherical radio Telescope (FAST)

Fr.: FAST   

The 500 m diameter → radio telescope which is the largest → single-dish antenna in the world. It is an Arecibo type telescope nestled within a natural basin in China's remote and mountainous Dawodang, Kedu Town, in southeastern China's Guizhou Province. The → reflector consists of 4,450 triangular panels, each with a side length of 11 m. More than 2,000 → actuators are used, according to the feedback from the measuring system, to deform the whole reflector surface and directly correct for → spherical aberration. Several detectors are used to cover a frequency range of 70 MHz to 3 GHz.

five; → hundred; → meter; → aperture; → spherical; → radio; → telescope.

flared disk
  گرده‌ی ِ برون‌گشا، دیسک ِ ~   
gerde-ye borun-gošâ, disk-e ~

Fr.: disque évasé   

A model of → accretion disk around a → pre-main sequence star or a → protostar in which the ratio of the disk thickness to the distance from the star increases outward. Current models of the irradiation of flared disks by stellar radiation predict that a central hole is created around the young star due to the evaporation of dust by the stellar radiation. The inner rim of the disk, at 0.5 to 1 AU from the star, is irradiated by the star "frontally" (at 90° angle). The heat produced by the irradiation causes the inner rim to puff up. A part of the disk, from about 1 to 6 AU, lies in the shadow of the puffed-up inner rim. The surface layers in this region do not receive stellar photons directly. Therefore, there is no significant heating of the disk midplane by reprocessed stellar flux from the disk surface. The midplane temperatures in the shadowed part of the disk are governed by the → near infrared emission of the inner rim, scattering of stellar light by dust particles outside the disk plane, and radial diffusion which exchanges energy between adjacent slabs. As for the outer parts of the disk, the surface is irradiated by the central star thanks to the outward widening of the disk. These parts remain flared, because the absorbed stellar flux is partially emitted toward the midplane, keeping the internal temperatures high enough to push the surface layers up. The flattened-disk model explains the observed → spectral energy distribution of some objects such as HD 179218. It also accounts for the observed strong → far-infrared, → excess, strong → PAH emission, and strong [O I] emission. Compare with → self-shadowed disk. See also → protoplanetary disk.

Flared, from flare "to spread gradually outward, as the end of a trumpet, having a gradual increase in width," of unknown origin; → disk.

Gerdé, → disk; borun-gošâ "opening outward," from borun "out, the outside" (Mid.Pers. bêron, from "outside, out, away" + rôn "side, direction;" Av. ravan- "(course of a) river") + gošâ stem of gošâdan, gošudan "to open;" Mid.Pers. wišâdan "to open, let free;" Khotanese hiyā "bound;" O.Pers. višta "untied, loosend;" vištāspa- (personal name) "with loosened horses;" Av. višta "untied," hita- "fastened, tied on;" cf. Skt. sā- "to bind, fasten," syáti "binds."

focal reducer
  کاهنده‌ی ِ کانونی، باز‌هازنده‌ی ِ ~   
kâhande-ye kânuni, bâzhâzande-ye ~

Fr.: réducteur focal   

An optical component or system for changing the image scale of a telescope to achieve a better match between the → seeing disk and the → pixel size.

focal; → reducer.

gravitational redshift
  سرخ‌کیب ِ گرانشی   
sorxkib-e gerâneši

Fr.: décalage vers le rouge gravitationnel   

The change in the wavelength or frequency of electromagnetic radiation in a gravitational field predicted by general relativity.

gravitational; → redshift.

Great Red Spot
  لکه‌ی ِ سرخ ِ بزرگ   
lakke-ye sorx-e bozorg (#)

Fr.: Grande tache rouge   

An anticyclonic storm on the planet Jupiter akin to a hurricane on Earth, but it is enormous (three Earths would fit within its boundaries) and it has persisted for at least the 400 years that humans have observed it through telescopes.

great; → red; → spot.

  ریگن‌بردنی، دریگیدنی   
riganbordani, darigidani

Fr.: dont on peut hériter, qui peut hériter   


inherit; → -able.

  ریگن‌داشتی، ریگنداشتی   

Fr.: héréditaire   

1) Passing, or capable of passing, naturally from parent to offspring through the genes: Blue eyes are hereditary in our family.
2) Of or relating to inheritance or heredity (

Of or relating to → heredity.

  ریگن‌داشت، ریگنداشت   

Fr.: hérédité   

The passing on of physical or mental characteristics genetically from one generation to another (

M.E., from M.Fr. hérédité, from O.Fr. eredite "inheritance, legacy," from L. hereditatem (nominative hereditas) "heirship, inheritance," → heritage.

Rigandâšt, literally "possessing heritage," from rigan, → heritage, + dâšt past stem of dâštan "to have, hold, possess, maintain," → property.

high redshift object
  بر‌آخت ِ مه-سرخ‌کیب   
barâxt-e meh-sorxkib

Fr.: objet à grand décalage vers le rouge   

A galaxy or quasar having a → redshift larger than about 0.8, corresponding to a → look-back time half the present age of the Universe. The qualifier "high" is, however, relative and depends on context and authors' assessment.

high; → redshift; → object.

hot dust-obscured galaxy (HDOG)
  کهکشان ِ تیره با غبار ِ داغ   
kahkešân-e tiré bâ qobâr-e dâq

Fr.: galaxie obscure à poussière chaude   

A member of the most extreme galaxies in terms of their luminosities and unusual hot → dust temperatures. The → infrared emission from HDOGs is dominated by obscured accretion onto a central → supermassive black hole (SMBH), in most cases without significant contribution from → star formation. The large contrast between the underlying → host galaxy and the hyper-luminous emission from the → active galactic nucleus (AGN) implies that either the SMBH is much more massive than expected for the stellar mass of its host, or is radiating well above its → Eddington limit. The most extreme of these remarkable systems known is → W2246-0526.

hot; → dust; → obscure; → galaxy.

  صد، سد   
sad (#)

Fr.: cent   

The smallest three digit number in the decimal system and the smallest square of a two-digit number (10).

Hundred, from O.E. hundred "a counting of 100," from P.Gmc. *hunda- "hundred," as below, + *rath "reckoning, number."

Sad "hundred," from Mid.Pers. sad, sat, Av. sata- "hundred," satô.raocana- "with a hundred windows," satô.təmô.sata- "hundreds of hundred;" cf. Skt. śatá- "hundred;" Gk. hekaton; L. centum; Lith. simtas; P.Gmc. *hunda- "hundred" (Goth. hund; O.H.G. hunt); PIE *kmtom "hundred."

forusorx (#)

Fr.: infrarouge   

The invisible part of electromagnetic spectrum possessing wavelengths between those of visible light and those of radio waves, i.e. approximately between about 0.75 and 1000 μm.

From L. infra (adv., prep.) "below, underneath, beneath," inferus "lower," from PIE *ndher; cf. Av. aδara- (adj.), aδairi- (prep.) "below;" Mid.Pers. êr "below, down; low, under," adar "low," azêr "below, under" (Mod.Pers. zir "below, down"); Skt. ádhara- "lower;" O.E. under "under, among"); → red.

Forusorx, from foru "down, downward; below; beneath;" Mid.Pers. frôt "down, downward;" O.Pers. fravata "forward, downward;" cf. Skt. pravát- "a sloping path, the slope of a mountain," + sorxred.

infrared array
  آرست ِ فروسرخ   
ârast-e forusorx

Fr.: détecteur mosaïque infrarouge   

A two-dimensional infrared imaging device, consisting of an array of small, individual electronic detectors, each of which records a pixel in the image.

infrared; → array.

Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS)
  ماهواره‌ی ِ اخترشناختی ِ فروسرخ   
mâhvâre-ye axtaršenâxti-e forusorx (#)

Fr.: satellite astronomique infrarouge   

An orbiting infrared telescope (60 cm mirror) which successfully operated from launch in January 1983 until the supply of coolant ran out in November 1983. It was a collaborative mission between NASA, the Netherlands, and the UK, and mapped 95% of the whole sky in the wavelength bands 12, 25, 60, and 100 microns.

infrared; → astronomical; → satellite.

infrared astronomy
  اخترشناسی ِ فروسرخ   
axtaršenâsi-ye forusorx (#)

Fr.: astronomie infrarouge   

The study of infrared properties of astronomical objects.

infrared; → astronomy.

infrared camera
  کدک ِ فروسرخ   
kadak-e forusorx

Fr.: caméra infrarouge   

An optical camera equipped with a → detector which is sensitive to → infrared radiation.

infrared; → camera.

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