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ruz-e xoršidi (#)
Fr.: jour solaire
The length of time between two successive transits of the Sun over the same meridian.
Fr.: dépression solaire
The → angle between the → sea horizon, the → center of → Earth, and the center of the → solar disk.
→ solar; → depression.
Fr.: disque solaire
The apparent shape of the → Sun's → photosphere.
tavânzâ-ye xoršidi (#)
Fr.: dynamo solaire
A model for explaining the generation of the → solar magnetic field and the related observational features (mainly → solar cycle, → Sporer's law, → Hale's law, → Joy's law, → polarity reversal). The global frame of this model is the interaction between a → turbulent plasma in the → convective zone (reciprocal generation of magnetic and electric fields) and the solar differential rotation (mutual transformation of meridional magnetic field into azimuthal magnetic field). The idea that a dynamo is responsible for generating the solar magnetic field was first proposed by Larmor (1919) and further developed by Cowling (1933), Parker (1955) and others.
xor gereft, gereft-e xoršidi (#)
Fr.: éclipse de soleil
An eclipse in which the Earth passes through the shadow cast by the Moon. Solar eclipses only happen when the Moon is new and when the Moon lies close to the node of its orbit.
solar ecliptic limit
hadd-e hurpehi-ye xoršid
Fr.: limite écliptique du Soleil
The greatest angular distance from a → lunar orbit node within which a → solar eclipse may occur when the Sun and Moon are in conjunction there. The solar ecliptic limit extends about 17° on each side of the node.
Fr.: équation solaire
In ancient astronomy, the difference between the Sun's mean and actual position. The ancients observed that, although the motion of the Sun in the ecliptic is almost uniform, it is subject to a small annual variation.
âlâv-e xoršidi (#)
Fr.: éruption solaire
A bright eruption form the Sun's → chromosphere in the vicinity of a → sunspot. Solar flares are caused by tremendous explosions on the surface of the Sun. In a matter of just a few minutes they heat the material to many millions of degrees and release as much energy as a billion → megatons of → T.N.T..
Fr.: instrument solaire
An instrument especially designed for solar observations.
→ solar; → instrument.
Fr.: irradiation solaire
The radiative power per unit area in all wavelengths from the Sun received by the Earth at its average distance from the Sun. Its mean value is called the → solar constant. The solar irradiance changes over a year by about 6.6% due to the variation in the Earth/Sun distance. Moreover, solar activity variations cause irradiance changes of up to 1%.
→ solar; → irradiance.
Fr.: bord solaire
The edge of the → disk of the → Sun.
Fr.: longitude du Soleil
The ecliptic longitude of the Sun. It varies from 0° (at the vernal equinox) to 360° during the year. By Kepler's Second Law, the rate of change of the solar longitude is such that the Earth sweeps out equal areas on the ecliptic plane in equal times.
tâbandegi-ye xoršid (#)
Fr.: luminosité solaire
The total → radiant energy, in all wavelengths, emitted by the Sun in all directions. It is 3.828 × 1026 W or 3.828 × 1033 erg sec-1 (International Astronomical Union, Resolution B3, 14 August 2015, Honolulu, USA). This is the luminosity unit conventionally used to give the luminosities of stars. See also: → solar constant. When the Earth first formed, 4.56 billion years ago, the Sun radiated 30% less energy than it does today, thus giving rise to the so-called → faint early Sun paradox. Ever since then, its power has increased by 7% every billion years (I. Ribas, 2009, arXiv:0911.4872).
→ solar; → luminosity.
solar magnetic cycle
carxe-ye meqnâtisi-ye xoršid
Fr.: cycle magnétique solaire
The period of time, about 22 years, after which the magnetic → polarity of the Sun returns to its earlier state. It consists of two consecutive → solar cycles.
solar magnetic field
meydân-e meqnâtisi-ye xoršid (#)
Fr.: champ magnétique solaire
The Sun's magnetic field which is probably created by the → differential rotation of the Sun together with the movement of charged particles in the → convective zone. Understanding how the solar magnetic field comes about is the fundamental problem of Solar Physics. The solar magnetic field is responsible for all solar magnetic phenomena, such as → sunspots, → solar flares, → coronal mass ejections, and the → solar wind. The solar magnetic fields are observed from the → Zeeman broadening of spectral lines, → polarization effects on radio emission, and from the channeling of charged particles into visible → coronal streamers. The strength of Sun's average magnetic field is 1 → gauss (twice the average field on the surface of Earth, around 0.5 gauss), and can be as strong as 4,000 Gauss in the neighborhood of a large sunspot.
jerm-e xoršid (#)
Fr.: masse solaire
The amount of mass in our Sun, 1.99 x 1033 g, about 330,000 times the Earth's mass. The solar mass is also the unit in which the masses of other stars, galaxies, and other large celestial bodies are expressed.
Fr.: maximum solaire
The month(s) during the 11 year → solar cycle when the number of → sunspots reaches a maximum.
Fr.: métallicité solaire
The proportion of the solar matter made up of → chemical elements heavier than → helium. It is denoted by Z, which represents the sum of all elements heavier than → helium, in mass fraction. The most recent determination of the solar Z gives a value of 0.0134 (Asplund et al. 2009, ARAA 47, 481), corresponding to the present-day photospheric composition.
→ solar; → metallicity.
Fr.: minimum solaire
The month(s) during the 11 year → solar cycle when the number of → sunspots is lowest.
Fr.: nébuleuse solaire
The cloud of interstellar gas and dust from which the Sun and the rest of the solar system initially formed.
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