An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory



<< < -wa Dra L d sub whi > >>

Number of Results: 82 Search : war
Draco Dwarf
  کوتوله‌ی ِ اژدها   
kutule-ye eždahâ

Fr.: Naine du Dragon   

A dwarf elliptical galaxy that is a satellite of our Galaxy and lies at a distance of about 250,000 light-years from the Galactic center. Its diameter is only about 3,500 light-years, and its absolute magnitude -8.6, making it the least luminous galaxy known.

Draco; → dwarf.

kutulé (#)

Fr.: nain   

1) General: A person of abnormally small height owing to a pathological condition; an animal or plant much smaller than the average of its kind or species.
2) Astro.: An adjective characterizing a particular type of object, as in → dwarf star, → dwarf galaxy, → dwarf planet.
See also:
blue compact dwarf galaxy, → brown dwarf, → brown dwarfcooling, → brown dwarfdesert, → DA white dwarf, → DB white dwarf, → DC white dwarf, → DO white dwarf, → double white dwarf, → DQ white dwarf, → Draco Dwarf, → dwarf Cepheid, → dwarf elliptical galaxy, → dwarf irregular galaxy, → dwarf nova, → dwarf spheroidal galaxy, → dwarf spiral galaxy, → dwarf starburst galaxy, → DZ white dwarf, → L dwarf, → M dwarf, → OB subdwarf, → red dwarf, → Sagittarius Dwarf Elliptical Galaxy, → Sagittarius Dwarf Irregular Galaxy, → Sculptor Dwarf Elliptical Galaxy, → subdwarf, → T dwarf, → tidal dwarf galaxy, → white dwarf, → white dwarf cooling track, → white dwarf crystallization, → Y dwarf.

Dwarf, from ME dwerg, dwerf, O.E. dweorg, dweorh, O.H.G. twerg "dwarf," from P.Gmc. *dweraz.

Kutulé, from kut "small, short" + Pers. diminutive suffix -ulé, → -ula. The first component kut is the base of kutâh "short, small, little," kudak "child, infant," Mid.Pers. kôtâh "low," kôtak "small, young; baby;" the Mid/Mod.Pers. kucak "small," belongs to this fammily; Av. kutaka- "little, small."

dwarf Cepheid
  کفیءوسی ِ کوتوله   
Kefeusi-ye kutulé

Fr.: céphéide naine   

An old name for a class of pulsating variable stars with small variations in amplitude, also called an AI Velae star or delta Scuti star. They lie in the lower part of the Cepheid instability strip.

dwarf; → Cepheid.

dwarf elliptical galaxy
  کهکشان ِ بیضی‌گون ِ کوتوله   
kahkašân-e beyzigun-e kutulé (#)

Fr.: galaxie elliptique naine   

A galaxy that is much smaller than other members of the elliptical class; it is designated as dE. A subtype of dwarf ellipticals is called a → dwarf spheroidal galaxy (dSph). The basic characteristics of the class are low surface brightness and smooth light distribution. They range in luminosity from that of the faintest dSph galaies MV ~ -9 to about -17. In the → Local Group there are 19 known dEs. They are very common in → galaxy clusters.

dwarf; → elliptical; → galaxy.

dwarf galaxy
  کهکشان ِ کوتوله   
kahkešân-e kutulé (#)

Fr.: galaxie naine   

A small, low luminosity galaxy that is associated with a larger spiral galaxy and may make up part of a galactic halo. There are many of them in the Local Group, and often orbit around larger galaxies such as the Milky Way and the Andromeda Galaxy. There are three main types of them: → dwarf elliptical galaxy (dE), → dwarf irregular galaxy (dI), and → dwarf spiral galaxy (dSA).

dwarf; → galaxy.

dwarf irregular galaxy
  کهکشان ِ بی‌سامان ِ کوتوله   
kahkašân-e bisâmân-e kutulé

Fr.: galaxie irrégulière naine   

An irregular galaxy that is much smaller than other irregulars. Dwarf irregulars are generally metal poor and have relatively high fractions of gas. They are thought to be similar to the earliest galaxies that populated the Universe, and are therefore important to understand the overall evolution of galaxies.

dwarf; → irregular; → galaxy.

dwarf nova
  نووای ِ کوتوله، نو‌اختر ِ ~   
novâ-ye kutulé, nowaxtar-e ~

Fr.: nova naine   

A class of → novae and → cataclysmic variables that have multiple observed → eruptions. Their prototype is → U Geminorum star. Optically, dwarf nova eruptions have amplitudes of 2-6 mag in V, a duration of a few to 20 days and a recurrence time-scale of weeks to years. Dwarf novae are thought to be → semidetached binary stars consisting of a → white dwarf  → primary accreting via → Roche lobe overflow from a → companion which is usually a → late-type, generally → main-sequence star. DN outbursts are usually attributed to the release of gravitational energy resulting from an → instability in the → accretion disk or by sudden mass transfers through the disk.

dwarf; → nova.

dwarf planet
  سیاره‌ی ِ کوتوله   
sayyâre-ye kutulé (#)

Fr.: planète naine   

A new category of → astronomical objects in the → solar system introduced in a resolution by the 26th General Assembly of the → International Astronomical Union (IAU) on August 24, 2006. The characterizing properties are as follows: 1) It is in orbit around the Sun; 2) It has sufficient mass for its self-gravity to overcome rigid body forces so that it assumes a → hydrostatic equilibrium (nearly round) shape; 3) It has not "cleared the neighbourhood" around its orbit; and 4) It is not a → satellite of a → planet, or other non-stellar body. The property 3 reclassified → Pluto from a planet to a dwarf planet because it has not cleared the neighborhood of its orbit (the → Kuiper Belt). The largest known dwarf planets are: → Eris, → Pluto, → Ceres, → Makemake, and → 2015 RR245.

dwarf; → planet.

dwarf spheroidal galaxy (dSph)
  کهکشان ِ کره‌وار ِ کوتوله   
kahkašân-e korevâr-e kutulé (#)

Fr.: galaxie sphéroïdale naine   

A subtype of dwarf ellipticals (→ dwarf elliptical galaxy), which are companion to the → Milky Way and other similar galaxies. The first example of such objects was discovered by Harlow Shapley (1938) in the constellation → Sculptor. 22 such galaxies are known currently to orbit the Milky Way and at least 36 exist in the → Local Group of galaxies. Nearby → galaxy clusters such as the → Virgo, → Fornax, → Centaurus, and → Coma clusters contain hundreds to thousands of individual dSph galaxies. These galaxies have very low → surface brightnesses, as low as only 1% that of the → sky background. They are also among the smallest, least luminous galaxies known. Most of the radiation from dSph galaxies is emitted by stars in the optical portion of the → electromagnetic spectrum. The lack of strong → emission lines, → infrared, or → radio emission suggests that these galaxies are generally devoid of → interstellar medium. The velocities of stars within dSph galaxies are so high that them must be disrupting. However, the bulk of mass in these galaxies might be undetected. Dynamical models that include → dark matter do adequately explain the → velocity dispersion of the stars in all dSph systems. In the most extreme cases, only 1% of the mass of the galaxy is visible. Many of the Local Group dSph galaxies show evidence for → star formation more recent than 10 Gyr.

dwarf; → spheroidal; → galaxy.

dwarf spiral galaxy
  کهکشان ِ مارپیچ ِ کوتوله   
kahkašân-e mârpic-e kutulé (#)

Fr.: galaxie spirale naine   

A galaxy that belongs to the spiral class but is significantly smaller.

dwarf; → spiral; → galaxy.

dwarf star
  ستاره‌ی ِ کوتوله   
setâre-ye kutulé (#)

Fr.: étoile naine   

A star that burns its hydrogen content to produce its energy and therefore belongs to the main-sequence luminosity class.

dwarf; → star.

dwarf starburst galaxy
  کهکشان ِ کوتوله‌ی ِ ستاره-بلک   
kahkešân-e kutule-ye setâre-belk

Fr.: galaxie naine à flambée d'étoiless   

A → starburst galaxy that is a → dwarf galaxy. Examples include: the → dwarf irregular galaxy IC 10, the compact dwarf irregular Henize 2-10, and the dwarf irregular galaxy NGC 5253.

dwarf; → starburst; → galaxy.

DZ white dwarf
  سفید‌کوتوله‌ی ِ DZ   
sefid kutule-ye DZ

Fr.: naine blanche DZ   

A → white dwarf whose spectrum shows metal lines only; no H or He.

D short for → dwarf; Z a convention; → white.



In a self-regulatory system, monitoring a disturbance before it enters the → system to apply corrections before the disturbance has influenced the system. See also → feedback.

feed; → forward.

  پیش-سو؛ ۲) پیش-سو کردن   
1) piš-su; 2) piš-su kardan

Fr.: en avant, en avance   

1a) To or toward what is ahead or in front.
1b) Directed toward a point in advance.
2) To send forward; transmit, especially (a letter or email) to a different address.

From fore "before, in front of," cognate with Pers. farâ, → pro-,+ → -ward.

Piš-su, from piš "forward; in front of; before;" Mid.Pers. pêš, + su, → direction.

forward scattering
  پراکنش ِ پیش-سو   
parâkaneš-e piš-su

Fr.: diffusion en avant   

Scattering in which photons emerge from the → scattering medium travelling predominantly in the same direction as they entered. The → halos around the Sun and Moon in wet weather are caused by forward scattering by water droplets in the Earth's atmosphere. → backscattering.

forward; → scattering.

forward seismic modeling
  مدل‌سازی ِ لرزه‌ای ِ پیش-سو   
modelsâzi-ye larze-yi-ye piš-su


1) Geology: The process whereby a geologic section (subsurface model of one-, two-, or three dimensions) is transformed into a synthetic seismogram (synthetic seismic record).
2) In → asteroseismology, a model that takes the physical properties of a star as input parameters and predicts the star's oscillations. Then, by finding parameters that yield oscillation frequencies (ωnlm) close to those observed, one can infer the properties of the observed star. The quantum numbers n, l, and m must be identified before any meaningful comparison between seismic data and model predictions can be made. That mode identification requires a physical interpretation of the measured frequencies.

forward; → seismic; → modeling.

forward shock
  تش ِ پیش-سو   
toš-e piš-su

Fr.: choc en avant   

A highly → supersonic → shock wave created in a → supernova remnant as the expanding stellar ejecta runs into the → interstellar medium (ISM). This forward shock wave produces sudden, large changes in pressure and temperature behind the shock wave. The forward shock wave also accelerates electrons and other charged particles to extremely high energies. The forward shock front has a velocity of 104 km s-1 and can heat the shocked gas to temperatures ~ 109 K. While the forward shock continues to expand into the ISM, it creates a → reverse shock that travels back into the freely expanding → supernova ejecta.

forward; → shock.

global warming
  گرمایش ِ جهانی   
garmâyeš-e jahâni

Fr.: réchauffement climatique   

An increase in the average → temperature of the Earth's → atmosphere that brings about climatic changes.

global; → warming.

saxt-afzâr (#)

Fr.: matériel   

Any physical equipment. The physical equipment comprising a computer system; opposed to → software.

hard + ware, from M.E., from O.E. waru, from P.Gmc. *waro (cf. Swed. vara, Dan. vare, M.Du. were, Du. waar, Ger. Ware "goods").

Saxt-afzâr, from saxt, → hard + afzâr "instrument, means, tool," from Mid.Pers. afzâr, abzâr, awzâr "instrument, means," Proto-Iranian *abi-cāra- or *upa-cāra-, from cāra-, cf. Av. cārā- "instrument, device, means" (Mid.Pers. câr, cârag "means, remedy;" loaned into Arm. aucar, aucan "instrument, remedy;" Mod.Pers. câré "remedy, cure, help"), from kar- "to do, make, build;" kərənaoiti "he makes" (Pers. kardan, kard- "to do, to make"); cf. Skt. kr- "to do, to make," krnoti "he makes, he does," karoti "he makes, he does," karma "act, deed;" PIE base kwer- "to do, to make").

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