An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory



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Number of Results: 160 Search : and

Fr.: abandonner   

1) To leave completely and finally; forsake utterly; desert.
2) To give up; discontinue; withdraw from (

M.E. abando(u)nen, from M.Fr. abandoner, from O.Fr. abandoner from adverbial phrase à bandon "at will, at discretion," from à "at, to," → ad-, + bandon "power, jurisdiction," from L. bannum "proclamation."

Râcidan, related to Pers. parhêz, parhiz "to keep away from, abstain, avoid," gurêz, goriz "to flee, run away;" Av. raēc- "to leave, let;" → heritage.

absorption band
  باند ِ درشمی   
bând-e daršami

Fr.: bande d'absorption   

1) A series of very closely spaced absorption lines in stellar spectra resulting from the absorption of light by molecules. Bands caused by titanium oxide (→ TiO bands) and carbon compounds occur in the spectra of low temperature M and C stars.
2) A range of wavelengths, usually in electromagnetic radiation, that are absorbed by a given substance. Absorption bands are characteristic of molecules and correspond to changes of electron orbits in the molecules. See also → anomalous dispersion.

absorption; → band.

Alexander's dark band
  نوار ِ سیاه ِ الکساندر   
navâr-e siyâh-e Aleksânder

Fr.: bande noire d'Alexandre   

A dark space or band between the primary and secondary rainbows when both are visible. This effect is due to the minimum refraction angle for the → primary rainbow and the maximum for the → secondary rainbow. The only light in the dark region is caused by (a small amount of) scattering, and not the refraction of light in water droplets.

Named for Alexander of Aphrodisias, Greek Peripatetic philosopher and commentator, who first described the effect in 200 AD.

allowed band
  باند ِ پرزامیده   
bând-e parzâmidé

Fr.: bande permise   

In solid-state physics, the range of energies which electrons can attain in a material.

P.p. of v. allow, from O.Fr. alouer "approve," from L. allaudare , compound of → ad- "to" + laudare "to praise."

Bând, → band; parzâmidé, p.p. of parzâmidan "to send through, permit, allow," from parzâm "permission," from par- "through" + zâm stem of zâmidan, Mid.Pers. zâmenidan "to send, lead;" → permit

Almach (γ Andromedae)
  عناق، عناق‌العرض   
Anâq, Anâq-ol-Arz

Fr.: Almach   

The third brightest star in Andromeda and one of the most beautiful double stars in the sky. The brighter star of the pair appears golden yellow or slightly orange; it is a bright (of second magnitude) giant K star. The fainter companion, which appears greenish-blue, is also double.

This star is also known as Almaak, Alamak, Almak, or Almaach, from Ar. Al-'Anaq al-'Ardh "a small animal of Arabia similar to a badger."

Alpheratz (α Andromedae)

Fr.: Alphératz   

The brightest star in → Andromeda with a visual magnitude of 2.07. Alpheratz is a blue → subgiant star of spectral type B8 IV lying at a distance of about 97 → light-years. It is particularly remarkable because of the unusual strength of mercury and manganese absorption lines in its spectrum.

Other names for this star are Alpherat, Sirrah, or Sirah. These names derive from Ar. As-Surrat al-Faras (السره‌الفرس) "The Horse's Navel," from surrat (سره) "navel" + faras (فرس) "horse". The name refers to the location of the star in the figure of → Pegasus. However, the star is now considered to belong to the constellation → Andromeda.

Ra's-ol-Mosalsalé, from Ar. Ar-Ra's al-Mar'ah al-Musalsalah "The head of the chained woman," from Ra's "head" + Mar'ah "woman" + Musalsalah "chained".

  اُ، و   
o, va

Fr.: et   

1) (Conjunction, used to connect grammatically coordinate words, phrases, or clauses) Along or together with; as well as; in addition to; besides; also; moreover. → if and only if.
2) (Conjunction) Added to; plus (

From M.E., from O.E., akin to O.H.G. unti "and."

Va "and," graphical corruption of o "and;" Mid.Pers. ut, u- "and;" O.Pers. utā; Av. uta- "and;" cf. Skt. utá; maybe also influenced by Av. a disjunctive particle (Skt. ) "or," occasionally used in the sense of "and;" ... "either, or;" cf. Sogd. βa, fa "and, or," "or."

Anderson bridge
  پل ِ اندرسون   
pol-e Anderson

Fr.: pont d'Anderson   

A six-branch modification of the → Maxwell bridge that measures → inductance in terms of → resistance and → capacitance.

A. Anderson (1891, Phil. Mag. (5) 31, 329); → bridge.


Fr.: androgyne   

Being neither distinguishably → masculine nor → feminine, as in dress, appearance, or behavior (

From L. androgynus, from Gk. androgynos "male and female in one; womanish man; hermaphrodite," from andros, genitive of aner "male," from PIE root *ner-, Pers. nar, → male, + gyne "woman," from PIE root *gwen- "woman," Pers. zan, → woman.

Merâcen, literally "man-woman," from merâ, from Ardestâni, Nâini, Tarqi (Natanz) mera "man," cf. Tâti malle "man," Pers. mir "master," Mid.Pers. mêrak "(young) man" + Gorgâni cen "woman," variant Pers. zan, → woman.


Fr.: androgyne   

The state of appearing to be neither feminine nor masculine.

Noun from → androgynous.

  آندرومدا، زن ِ به زنجیر بسته   
Ândromedâ, Zan-e bé Zanjir Basté (#)

Fr.: Andromède   

A northern constellation between → Perseus and → Pegasus located at approximately R.A. 1h, Dec. +40 deg. Abbreviation And, Genitive form Andromedae.

In Gk. mythology, Andromeda was the princess of Ethiopia, daughter of → Cepheus and → Cassiopeia. The queen Cassiopeia angered Poseidon by saying that Andromeda (or possibly Cassiopeia herself) was more beautiful than the Nereids. Poseidon sent a sea monster to prey upon the country; he could be appeased only by the sacrifice of the king's daughter. Andromeda in sacrifice was chained to a rock by the sea; but she was rescued by → Perseus, who killed the monster and later married her. Cassiopeia, Cepheus, and Andromeda were all set among the stars as constellations.

Zan-e bé Zanjir Basté "the chained woman," coined by the 11th century astronomer Biruni, from Ar. Emra'at al-mosalsalah "the chained woman," from the Gk. mythology.

Andromeda galaxy (M31, NGC 224)
  کهکشان ِ آندرومدا، ~ زن ِ به زنجیر بسته   
kahkašân-e Ândromedâ (#), ~ Zan-e bé Zanjir Basté (#)

Fr.: galaxie d'Andromède   

The nearest → spiral galaxy to our own and a major member of the → Local Group. It lies in the constellation → Andromeda and is the most remote object normally visible to the naked eye. The earliest known reference to this galaxy is by the Iranian astronomer Sufi who called it "the little cloud" in his Book of Fixed Stars (A.D. 964).

Andromeda; → galaxy.


Fr.: Andromédides   

A meteor shower which appears about 25 November with its → radiant located in the constellation → Andromeda. The Andromedids are the debris of → Biela's comet. The short-period comet, discovered in 1826, split into two parts in the middle of the 19th century and later vanished. Hence their alternative name Bielids.

Andromedids, from Andromeda constellation + → -ids suffix denoting "descendant of, belonging to the family of."

Ândromedâiyân, from Ândromedâ + -iyân, → -ids.

Ap and Bp star
  ستاره‌ی ِ Ap/Bp   
setâre-ye Ap/Bp

Fr.: étoile Ap/Bp   

Same as → Ap/Bp star.

Ap/Bp star.

Argand diagram
  نمودار ِ ارگان   
nemudâr-e Argand

Fr.: diagramme d'Argand   

A geometrical representation of → complex numbers, which like the → Cartesian coordinates, uses two reference perpendicular axes. The horizontal axis represents the → real number part of the number and the perpendicular axis the → imaginary number part.

Named after Jean Robert Argand (1768-1822), a Swiss mathematician, who introduced this representation; → diagram.

Argelander method
  روش ِ آرگلاندر   
raveš-e Argelander

Fr.: méthode d'Argelander   

A technique to estimate the brightness of a → variable star. It involves comparing the variable with a sequence of neighboring stars of slightly different → magnitudes.

Friedrich Wilhelm Argelander (1799-1875), German astronomer. His most important work was his compilation of the Bonner Durchmusterung; → method.

Aromatic Infrared Band (AIB)
  باند ِ فروسرخ ِ اروماتیک   
bând-e forusorx-e aromâtik

Fr.: bande infrarouge aromatique   

A family of strong infrared emission bands at 3.3, 6.2, 7.7, 8.6, 11.3, and 12.7 μm which are widely observed in a large variety of objects, such as → H II regions, → reflection nebulae, → planetary nebulae, and the → diffuse interstellar medium of our galaxy and other galaxies. Solar system objects, such as carbonaceous → meteorites and → interplanetary dust particles are also known to display these features. They are suggested to be due to → polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

aromatic; → infrared; → band.

bând (#)

Fr.: bande   

General:1) A strip serving to encircle and bind one object or to hold a number of objects together. 2) A strip or stripe that contrasts with something else in color, texture, or material.
Physics: 1) A specific range of wavelengths or frequencies of electromagnetic radiation.
2) Closely packed spectral lines that appear to form a continuous group. → absorption band; → emission band.

From M.E. bende, O.E. bend, from O.Fr. bande, bende, P.Gmc. *bindan, from PIE *bendh- "to bind" (cf. Goth bandi "that which binds;" Av./O.Pers. band- "to bind, fetter," banda- "band, tie," Skt. bandh- "to bind, tie, fasten," bandhah "a tying, bandage."

Bând, adoption from E. band, which is cognate and synonymous with Pers. band, present tense stem of bastan "to bind, shut," Mid.Pers. bastan, band, Av./O.Pers. band-, as explained above. See also → strip.

band head
  باندسر، سر ِ باند   
bândsar, sar-e bând

Fr.: tête de bande   

A location on the spectrogram of a molecule at which the lines of a band stack.

Band head, from → band + head, from O.E. heafod "top of the body," also "upper end of a slope," also "chief person, leader," from P.Gmc. *khaubuthan, from PIE *kauput- "head" (cf. Skt. kaput-, L. caput "head," Lori kapu "head," kapulek "skull, middle of the head").

Bândsar, from → bând + sar "head," soru, sorun "horn," karnâ "a trumpet-like wind instrument" (originally made from animal horns), variant sornâ "a wind instrument;" Mid.Pers. sar "head," sru "horn;" Av. sarah- "head," srū- "horn, nail;" cf. Skt. śiras- "head, chief;" Gk. kara "head," karena "head, top," keras "horn;" L. cornu "horn," cerebrum "brain;" P.Gmc. *khurnaz (E. horn; Ger. Horn, Du. horen), from PIE *ker- "head, horn."

band spectrum
  بیناب ِ باندی   
binâb-e bândi

Fr.: spectre de bande   

A spectrum which consists of a number of bands each having one sharp edge. Each band is composed of a large number of closely spaced emission or absorption lines. Band spectra are typical of molecules. Bands produced by titanium oxide, zirconium oxide, and carbon compounds are characteristic of low temperature stars.

Band spectrum, from → band + → spectrum.

Binâb-e bândi, from binâb, → spectrum + bândi, relating to bând, → band.

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