An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory



<< < -le Lag lam Lan Lar las law lea Lem Leo Ley lig lim lin lin lin lit Loc Loc Lom Lor low lum lun lun Lym > >>

Number of Results: 509

Fr.: durable   

Continuing or remaining for a long time; enduring.

last; → -ing.

  ۱) دیر؛ ۲) دیران   
1) dir (#); 2) dirân

Fr.: tardif; tard; avancé   

1) Happening or arriving after an expected or arranged time; not on time, beyond usual time.
2) Belonging to an advanced stage or period in the development of something. → Late Heavy Bombardment, → late helium flash, → late thermal pulse, → late-type galaxy, → late-type star.

M.E., from O.E. læt "slow, late;" cf. Ger. lass "slothful;" O.N. latr, Goth. lats "slow, lazy;" L. lassus "tired, faint;" Gk. ledein "to be weary."

Dir "late; tardily, slowly; a long while; old, antique," from Mid.Pers. dêr, variants dagr, drâz "long" (Mod.Pers. derâz "long," variant Laki, Kurdi derež); O.Pers. darga- "long;" Av. darəga-, darəγa- "long," drājištəm "longest;" cf. Skt. dirghá- "long (in space and time);" L. longus "long;" Gk. dolikhos "elongated;" O.H.G., Ger. lang; Goth. laggs "long;" PIE base *dlonghos- "long."
Dirân, adjective, variant of dir, as above.

Late Heavy Bombardment (LHB)
  بمباران ِ سنگین ِ دیران   
bombârân-e sangin-e dirân

Fr.: Grand Bombardement Tardif   

A cataclysmic event in the history of the → solar system, estimated to have occurred 3.9 billion years ago (about 600 million years after the formation of the → terrestrial planets) during which → asteroid and → comet impacts with Earth were some 20,000 times more frequent than today. It is estimated that during this period the terrestrial planets were bombarded with an object 1 km in size every 20 years. This hypothetical event lasted 50 to 150 million years. Several explanations have been put forward, among which the occurrence of an instability in the outer solar system which caused → orbital migration of small bodies from the → Kuiper belt inward.

late, with respect to the formation time of the planets; → heavy; bombardment, noun from bombard, from Fr. bombarder, from bombarde "mortar, catapult" from bombe, from It. bomba, probably from L. bombus "a booming sound," from Gk. bombos "deep and hollow sound."

late helium flash
  درخش ِ هلیوم ِ دیران   
deraxš-e heliom-e dirân

Fr.: flash de helium tardif   

A → helium flash event that occurs during the → post-AGB phase. Some of the central stars of planetary nebulae (→ CSPN) experience a final → thermal pulse after having achieved a → white dwarf configuration and begun their descent along a → white dwarf cooling track of nearly constant radius. During such a pulse, most of the hydrogen remaining in the star at pulse onset is incorporated into the helium-burning convective shell and completely burned. Following the pulse, the star swells briefly to → red giant dimensions (Iben et al. 1983; ApJ 264, 605).

late; → helium; → flash.

late thermal pulse
  تپه‌ی ِ گرمای ِ دیران   
tape-ye garmâyi-ye dirân

Fr.: flash de l'hélium tardif   

In evolutionary models of → low-mass and → intermediate-mass stars, the occurrence of a → helium shell flash on the → horizontal branch of the → post-AGB track, while → hydrogen shell burning is still going on.

late; → thermal; → pulse.

late-type galaxy (LTG)
  کهکشان ِ گونه‌ی ِ فرجامین   
kahkešân-e gune-ye farjâmin

Fr.: galaxie de type tardif   

In the → Hubble classification, a galaxy on the left part of the → Hubble sequence. See also → early-type galaxy.

late; → type; → galaxy.

late-type star
  ستاره‌ی ِ گونه‌ی ِ فرجامین   
setâre-ye gune-ye farjâmin

Fr.: étoile de type tardif   

A star of → spectral type K, M, S, or C, with a surface temperature lower than that of the Sun. → early-type star. See also → spectral classification.

late; → type; → star.

nahân (#)

Fr.: latent   

Present but not visible, apparent, or actualized; existing as potential ( → latent heat.

From L. latentem (nominative latens), pr.p. of latere "to lie hidden."

Nahân "concealed, hid; clandestine;" Mid.Pers. nihân "secrecy, a secret place, a hiding place," nihânik "concealed;" Av. niδāti- "deposing, deposit."

latent heat
  گرمای ِ نهان   
garmâ-ye nahân (#)

Fr.: chaleur latente   

The amount of → thermal energy that is absorbed or released by a unit amount of a substance in the process of a phase change under conditions of constant pressure and temperature.

latent; → heat.

  بری، کناری، پهلویی   
bari, kenâri, pahluyi

Fr.: latéral   

Of or relating to the → side; situated at, proceeding from, or directed to a side (

M.E., from O.Fr. latéral and directly from L. lateralis "belonging to the side," from latus "the side, flank; lateral surface."

Kenâri, relating to kenâr, → side.


Fr.: latitude   

The angle between a perpendicular at a location, and the → equatorial plane of the Earth. → longitude. See also:
astronomical latitude, → celestial latitude, → circle of latitude, → colatitude, → ecliptic latitude, → Galactic latitude, → geocentric latitude, → geodetic latitude, → geographic latitude, → high latitudes, → horse latitudes, → middle latitudes, → spherical latitude, → supergalactic latitude.

L. latitudo "breadth, width, size," from latus "wide," from PIE base *stela- "to spread" (cf. O.C.S. steljo "to spread out," Arm. lain "broad").

Varunâ, from var "breadth, side, breast," variant bar, Tabari vari "width," Mid.Pers. var "breast," Av. varah- "breast" (Sk. vara- "width, breadth") + -u a suffix forming adjectives; Av. vouru- "wide;" + -nâ a suffix of dimension.


Fr.: réseau   

1) A regular geometric arrangement of points in a plane or in space.
2) → Crystal lattice.
3) A structure in a nuclear reactor containing nuclear fuel and other materials arranged in a regular geometrical pattern.
4) Math.: A partially ordered set in which each two-element subset has both a greatest lower bound and a least upper bound.

From O.Fr. latiz "lattice," from late "lath, board, plank, batten" (Fr. latte); cf. O.H.G. latta "lath."

Jâré, from jarra "net; snare," Afghan jâli "reticulated garment," Tabari jarazin "grilled apparatus used in a watercourse to gather thatch and trash;" cf. Skt. jāla- "net, snare, lattice."

lattice energy
  کاروژ ِ جاره   
kâruž-e jâré

Fr.: énergie réticulaire   

The energy required to separate an ion from a → crystal to an infinite distance. In other words, the energy released when one → mole of a crystal is formed from gaseous ions.

lattice; → energy.

latus rectum
  تار ِ راست   
târ-e râst

Fr.: latus rectum   

The chord through a focus and perpendicular to then major axis of a conic section.

L. latus "side;" rectum "straight," → right.

Târ "thread, warp, string" (related to tur "net, fishing net, snare," tâl "thread" (Borujerdi dialect), tân "thread, warp of a web," from tanidan, tan- "to spin, twist, weave;" Mid.Pers. tanitan; Av. tan- "to stretch, extend;" cf. Skt. tan- "to stretch, extend;" tanoti "stretches," tántra- "warp; essence, main point;" Gk. teinein "to stretch, pull tight;" L. tendere "to stretch;" Lith. tiñklas "net, fishing net, snare," Latv. tikls "net;" PIE base *ten- "to stretch."

  پرتاب کردن   
partâb kardan (#)

Fr.: lancer   

1) To throw or propel with force; hurl. → jet launching.
2) To set (a missile, spacecraft, etc) into motion

From M.E. launchen "to throw as a lance," O.Fr. lanchier, lancier "to hurl, throw, cast," from L.L. lanceare "wield a lance," from L. lancea "light spear, lance."

From partâb "a throw, an arrow that flies far," partâbidan "to throw," → ballistics.

godâzé (#)

Fr.: lave   

Molten → magma released from a volcanic vent or fissure.

Lava, from It. lava "torrent, stream," from L. lavare "to wash;" PIE base *lou- "to wash;" cf. Persian Lori, Kurdi, Malâyeri laf "flood," variants Tabari , [Mo'in, Dehxodâ] lur, lây "flood;" Gk. louein "to wash."

Godâzé noun from godâxtan "to melt," from Mid.Pers. vitâxtan, vitâcitan "to melt," from Av. vi-taxti- "flowing away, melting," from vi- "apart, away from, out" (O.Pers. viy- "apart, away;" cf. Skt. vi- "apart, asunder, away, out;" L. vitare "to avoid, turn aside") + tak- "to run, to flow," taciāp- "flowing water," tacinti (3pl.pers.act.) "to flow," tacar- "course," tacan "current, streaming;" Mod.Pers. tâz-, tâxtan "to run; to hasten; to assault," tâzi "swift (greyhound)," tak "running, rush;" Mid.Pers. tâz-, tâxtan "to flow, to cause to walk," tc- "to flow, to walk," tag "running, attack," tâzig "swift, fast;" Khotanese ttajs- "to flow, to walk;" cf. Skt. tak- "to rush, to hurry," takti "runs;" O.Ir. tech- "to flow;" Lith. teketi "to walk, to flow;" O.C.S. tešti "to walk, to hurry;" Tokharian B cake "river;" PIE base *tekw- "to run; to flow."

  قانون، ارته   
qânun (#), arté (#)

Fr.: loi   

1) A rule of conduct or procedure established by custom, agreement, or authority.
2) A code of principles based on morality, conscience, or nature.
3) Physics: A statement of a scientific fact or phenomenon that is invariable under given conditions; e.g. → Newton's law of gravitation, → second law of thermodynamics.
4) Math.: A general principle deduced from particular facts expressed by the statement that a particular phenomenon always occurs if certain conditions are present.

M.E., O.E. lagu, from O.N. *lagu, variant of lag "that which is laid down;" cf. Ger. liegen, E. lay, lie; PIE *legh- "To lie, lay;" compare with Hittite laggari "falls, lies," Gk. lekhesthai "to lie down," L. lectus "bed," O.Ir. lige "bed, tomb," Tokharian lake, leke "bed."

Qânun, from Ar., ultimately from Gk. kanon "rule."
Arté, from O.Pers. arta- "law, justice;" Av. arəta-, ərəta- "law, order," variant aša- "truth, cosmic order," aipi-ərəta- "firmly assigned," from root ar- "to fix;" cf. Skt. rtá- "truth, world order; oath;" Ossetci ard "oath;" Gk. arthon "limb, articulation," artus "a joint;" L. artus "a joint;" PIE base *ar- "to join, to fit together."

law of cosines
  قانون ِ کوسینوس‌ها   
qânun-e kosinushâ

Fr.: loi des cosinus   

An expression that for any triangle relates the length of a side to the cosine of the opposite angle and the lengths of the two other sides. If a, b, and c are the sides and A, B, and C are the corresponding opposites angles: a2 = b2 + c2 - 2bc cos A; b2 = c2 + a2 - 2ca cos B; c2 = a2 + b2 - 2ab cos C.

law; → cosine.

law of excluded middle
  قانون ِ میانی سکلانده   
qânun-e miyâni soklândé

Fr.: principe du milieu exclu   

Same as → principle of excluded middle.

law; → exclude; → middle.

law of identity
  قانون ِ ایدانی   
qânun-e idâni

Fr.: principe d'identité   

Same as → principle of identity.

law; → identity.

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