An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory



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Number of Results: 391
gardan (#)

Fr.: cou   

The part of a person's or animal's → body that connecting the → head to the rest of the body.

M.E. nekke, from O.E. hnecca, cognate with Du. nek "the nape of the neck;" Ger. Nacken, O.Norse hnakki "the nape of the neck."

Gardan "neck;" related to geri, geribân "collar," gerivé "low hill," galu "throat;" Mid.Pers. gartan "neck," galôg, griv "throat;" Av. grīvā- "neck;" cf. Skt. gala- "throat, neck;" Gk. bora "food;" L. gula "throat" (Fr. gueule "(animal) mouth"), gluttire "to gulp down," vorare "to devour;" PIE base *gwer- "to swallow, devour." L. gula; cf. Mod.Pers. galu "throat."

suzan (#)

Fr.: aiguille   

A slender pointed piece of metal, usually steel. → magnetic needle.

M.E. nedle, O.E. naeðlæ, nedlæ (cf. O.S. nathla, O.N. nal, O.Fris. nedle, O.H.G. nadala, Ger. Nadel); PIE root *(s)ne- "to sew, to spin;" cf. Skt. snayati "wraps up;" Gk. nein "to spin;" L. nere "to spin."

Suzan, Mid.Pers. sôzan, sucan, related to sok "pointed stick for driving cattle;" Av. sūkā- "needle;" cf. Skt. sūcī- "sting;" L. cuneus "wedge;" PIE base kū- "sharp; spike."

nâyidan (#)

Fr.: nier   

1) To deny the existence or truth of.
2) To cause to be ineffective or invalid.

From L. negatus p.p. of negare "to say 'no', deny," from Old L. nec "not," from PIE base *ne- "no, not."

Nâyidan infinitive from "no, not," variants na, ni, ma- (prohitive); from Mid.Pers. nê, ma "no, not;" O.Pers. naiy, nai "not;" Av. nôit, naē "not;" cf. Skt. "not;" cf. L. ne-, in-, un-; Gk. ni; Lith. ; O.C.S. ne "not;" PIE *ne-, as above.

nâyeš (#)

Fr.: négation   

1) The act of denying; → denial.
2) The absence or → opposite of something that is actual, positive, or affirmative.
3) A → negative statement, idea, doctrine; a contradiction, refutation, or rebuttal.
4) Logic: If p is a → proposition, then the statement "not p," denoted ¬ p, is the negation or opposite of p. If p is "It is sunny," then ¬ p is "It is not sunny." If p is → true, then ¬ p is → false, and vice versa.

Verbal noun of → negate.

nâyidâr (#)

Fr.: négatif   

1) General: Expressing, containing, or consisting of a negation, refusal, or denial.
2) Math.: Of or relating to a quantity less than zero. Of or relating to the sign (-).
3) Physics: Of or relating to an electric charge of the same sign as that of an electron.
4) Photography: Having dark for light and light for dark.
5) Opposite of → positive.
See also:
negative charge, → negative correlation, → negative crystal, → negative feedback, → negative lens, → negative number, → negative polarization, → negative pressure, → negative skewness.

From O.Fr. negatif (fem. negative), from L. negativus, "denying, inhibiting (legal actions); denied/refused; negative," from negare "to refuse, say 'no'" from Old L. nec "not", from Italic base *nek- "not," from PIE base *ne- "no, not."

Nâyidâr, from nâyidan, → negate, on the model of xaridâr, foruxtâr, xâstâr, virâstâr, etc.

negative charge
  بار ِ ناییدار   
bâr-e nâyidâr

Fr.: charge négative   

An electric charge that has the same sign as the electron.

negative; → charge.

negative correlation
  هم‌باز‌آنش ِ ناییدار   
hambâzâneš-e nâyidâr

Fr.: corrélation négative   

A correlation between two variables such that as one variable's values tend to increase, the other variable's values tend to decrease.

negative; → correlation.

negative crystal
  بلور ِ ناییدار   
bolur-e nâyidâr

Fr.: cristal négatif   

A uniaxial, birefringent crystal in which the velocity of the extraordinary ray surpasses that of the ordinary ray.

negative; → crystal.

negative feedback
  بازخورد ِ ناییدار   
bâzxord-e nâyidâr

Fr.: rétroaction negative   

A → feedback process in which the → output reacts on the → input so as to reduce the initial → effect.

negative; → feedback.

negative lens
  عدسی ِ ناییدار   
adasi-ye nâyidâr

Fr.: lentille divergente   

Same as → divergent lens.

negative; → lens.

negative number
  عدد ِ ناییدار   
adad-e nâyidâr

Fr.: nombre négatif   

A → real number that is less than zero. A negative number is indicated by the → minus sign.

negative; → number.

negative polarization
  قطبش ِ ناییدار   
qotbeš-e nâyidâr

Fr.: polarisation négative   

A type of polarization in which the direction of polarization becomes reversed.

negative; → polarization.

negative pressure
  فشار ِ ناییدار   
fešâr-e nâyidâr

Fr.: pression négative   

A kind of pressure that contrarily to ordinary pressure pushes inward. In contrast with the → Newtonian mechanics, in → general relativity there are situations in which pressure can be negative. Positive pressure gives rise to attractive gravity, whereas negative pressure creates → repulsive gravity.

negative; → pressure.

negative skewness
  کژالی ِ ناییدار   
kažâli-ye nâyidâr

Fr.: asymétrie négative   

Of a distribution function, a skewness in which the left tail (tail at small end of the distribution) is more pronounced that the right tail (tail at the large end of the distribution). → positive skewness.

negative; → skewness.

negâtron (#)

Fr.: négatron   

An obsolete term denoting a negatively charged electron, as opposed to a positron.

From → negative + → electron.

hamsâyegi (#)

Fr.: voisinage   

1) The area or region around or near some place or thing; vicinity. → solar neighborhood.
2) Math.: An → open set that contains a given point.

From neighbor, M.E., O.E. neahgebur, from neahnear + -hood suffix denoting "state or condition of being;" M.E. -hode, -hod; O.E. -had "condition, position," cognate with Ger. -heit, Du. -heid.

Hamsâyegi, noun from hamsâyé "neighbor," literally "under, sharing the same shade," from ham-, → syn-, + sâyé, → shadow.

  نیءوزاد، نوزاد   
Neozâd, Nowzâd

Fr.: Néogène   

A period of → geologic time within the Cenozoic era, between 23 and 2.6 million years ago, which comprises the Miocene and Pliocene epochs.

From L. neo-, → new, + -gene, → gene.

neon (#)

Fr.: néon   

A colorless, odorless, and tasteless gaseous chemical element; symbol Ne. Atomic number 10, atomic weight 20.179; melting point -248.67°C; boiling point -246.048°C. It was discovered from its bright red spectral lines by the Scottish chemist William Ramsay and the English chemist Morris William Travers in 1898 from a liquefied air sample. Neon is produced by carbon burning in massive stars and released into the Galaxy when they explode.

From Gk. neon neuter of neos, → new, so called because it was a newly discovered element.

neon burning
  سوزش ِ نیءون   
suzeš-e neon

Fr.: combustion du néon   

A → nuclear fusion process that takes place in → massive stars and leads to the → production of → oxygen and → magnesium. It requires high temperatures and densities (around 1.2 × 109 K and 4 × 109 kg/m3).

neon; → burning.

abršenâsi (#)

Fr.: néphologie   

The branch of meteorology that deals with clouds.

From Gk. nephos "cloud," nephele "cloud;" cognate with Pers. nam "moisture;" Av. napta- "moist," nabās-cā- "cloud," nabah- "sky;" L. nebula "mist," nimbus "rainstorm, rain cloud;" Skt. nábhas- "moisture, cloud, mist;" O.H.G. nebul; Ger. Nebel "fog;" O.E. nifol "dark;" PIE base *nebh- "cloud, vapor, fog, moist, sky" + → -logy.

Abršenâsi, from abr "cloud," from Mid.Pers. awr, abr (Laki owr, Baluchi haur, Kurd. Soriani hewr); Av. awra- "rain cloud, rain;" cf. Skt. abhra-"thunder cloud;" Gk. afros "scum, foam;" L. imber "rain;" also Sk. ambha- "water;" Gk. ombros "rain," PIE *mbhros "rain cloud, rain," from *mbh- + -šenâsi-logy.

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