# An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and AstrophysicsEnglish-French-Persian

## فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

### M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 742
 Rossby number   عدد ِ رسبی   'adad-e RossbyFr.: nombre de Rossby   A dimensionless number relating the ratio of inertial to Coriolis forces for a given flow of a rotating fluid. It is used in the study of atmospheric motions in planets. In case a small number is involved, cyclones and anticyclones are observed for low and high pressures. When it is large (Venus) the Coriolis force becomes negligible and atmospheric motions are barely affected by planetary rotation.Named after Carl-Gustav Arvid Rossby (1898-1957), a Swedish-American meteorologist who first explained the large-scale motions of the atmosphere in terms of fluid mechanics; → number. Rossby parameter   پارامون ِ روسبی   pârâmun-e RossbyFr.: paramètre de Rossby   The northward variation of the Coriolis parameter, arising from the sphericity of the Earth. Rossby wave   موج ِ روسبی   mowj-e RossbyFr.: onde de Rossby   A wave on a uniform current in a two-dimensional non-divergent fluid system, rotating with varying angular speed about the local vertical.→ Rossby number; → wave. Rosseland mean opacity   کدری ِ میانگین ِ روسلاند   kederi-ye miyângin-e RosselandFr.: opacité moyenne de Rosseland   The → opacity of a gas of given composition, temperature, and density averaged over the various wavelengths of the radiation being absorbed and scattered. The radiation is assumed to be in → thermal equilibrium with the gas, and hence have a → blackbody spectrum. Since → monochromatic opacity in stellar plasma has a complex frequency dependence, the Rosseland mean opacity facilitates the analysis. Denoted κR, it is defined by: 1/κR = (π/4σT3) ∫(1/kν) (∂B/∂T)νdν, summed from 0 to ∞, where σ is the → Stefan-Boltzmann constant, T temperature, B(T,ν) the → Planck function, and kν monochromatic opacity (See Rogers, F.J., Iglesias, C. A. Radiative atomic Rosseland mean opacity tables, 1992, ApJS 79, 507).Named after Svein Rosseland (1894-1985), a Norwegian astrophysicist, who obtained the expression in 1924; → mean; → opacity. Rossiter-McLaughlin effect   اُسکر ِ راسیتر-مک‌لاکلین   oskar-e Rossiter-McLaughlinFr.: effet Rossiter-McLaughlin   A → spectroscopic phenomenon observed when either an → eclipsing binary's → secondary star or an → extrasolar planet is seen to → transit across the face of the → primary body. Because of the rotation of the star, an asymmetric distortion takes place in the → line profiles of the stellar spectrum, which changes during the transit. The measurement of this effect can be used to derive the → alignment of the → orbit of the transiting exoplanet with respect to the → rotation axis of the star.Named after Richard Alfred Rossiter (1886-1977) and Dean Benjamin McLaughlin (1901-1965), American astronomers. rotate   چرخیدن   carxidan (#)Fr.: tourner   To turn around an axis. See also → revolve.From L. rotare "to cause to spin, roll, move in a circle," from L. rota "wheel;" cognate with Pers. râh "way, path" (from Mid.Pers. râh, râs "way, street," also rah, ras "chariot;" from Proto-Iranian *rāθa-; cf. Av. raθa- "chariot;" Skt. rátha- "car, chariot," rathyā- "road;" Lith. ratas "wheel;" O.H.G. rad; Ger. Rad; Du. rad; O.Ir. roth; PIE *roto- "to run, to turn, to roll").Carxidan "to rotate," from carx "every thing performing a circulatory motion; a wheel; a cart;" Mid.Pers. chr "wheel," Parthian cxr "wheel;" Ossetic calx "wheel;" Av. caxra- "wheel;" cognate with Skt. cakra- "wheel, circle; cycle," carati "he moves, wanders;" Gk. kyklos "circle, wheel," polos "axis of a sphere," polein "move around;" L. colere "to dwell in, to cultivate, move around," colonus "farmer, settler;" O.E. hweol "wheel;" Rus. koleso "wheel." rotating   چرخنده، چرخان   carxandé, carxânFr.: en rotation   Capable of or having rotation.From → rotate + → -ing. rotating black hole   سیه‌چال ِ چرخان   siyahcâl-e carxânFr.: trou noir en rotation   A black hole that possesses angular momentum, as first postulated by Roy C. Kerr in 1963. Opposite of a stationary black hole. → ergosphere.→ rotating; → black hole. rotating star   ستاره‌ی ِ چرخان، ~ چرخنده   setâre-ye carxân, ~ carxandéFr.: étoile en rotation   A star that has a non-zero → angular velocity. In a rotating star, the → centrifugal forces reduce the → effective gravity according to the latitude and also introduce deviations from sphericity. In a rotating star, the equations of stellar structure need to be modified. The usual spherical coordinates must be replaced by new coordinates characterizing the → equipotentials. See also → von Zeipel theorem.→ rotating; → star. rotation   چرخش   carxeš (#)Fr.: rotation   The motion of a body about its axis.Verbal noun of → rotate. rotation axis   آسه‌ی ِ چرخش   âse-ye carxešFr.: axe de rotation   The imaginary line around which an object rotates. Same as → rotational axis and → axis of rotation.→ rotation; → axis. rotation curve   خم ِ چرخش   xam-e carxešFr.: courbe de rotation   A plot of the variation in → orbital velocity of stars and → interstellar matter with distance from the center of a → galaxy. A "flat" rotation curve indicates that the mass of the galaxy increases linearly with distance from its center. See also: farsi→ Keplerian rotation curveRotation; → curve. rotation energy   کاروژ ِ چرخش   kâruž-e carxešFr.: énergie de rotation   The → kinetic energy of rotational motion of an object. It is expressed by ER = (1/2)Iω2, where I is the → moment of inertia and ω → angular velocity (2π/P).→ rotation; → energy. rotation frequency   بسامد ِ چرخش   basâmad-e carxešFr.: fréquence de rotation   1) The number of rotations per unit time of a rotating object. 2) The number of → stellar rotations per unit time. The reciprocal of the → rotation period. This parameter usually refers to the equator of the star, because stars do not rotate as solid bodies.→ rotation; → frequency. rotation period   دوره‌ی ِ چرخش   dowre-ye carxeš (#)Fr.: période de rotation   The interval of time during which an object turns once about its axis.→ rotation; → period. rotation phase   فاز ِ چرخش   fâz-e carxešFr.: phase de rotation   A position parameter used in → stellar magnetic field studies. Its zero value represents the moment when, during → stellar rotation, the positive → magnetic pole is nearest to the → line of sight.→ rotation; → phase. rotation-induced turbulence   آشوبناکی ِ زاییده‌ی ِ چرخش، ~ درهازیده از ~   âšubnâki-ye zâyide-ye carxeš, darhâzidé az ~Fr.: turbulence induite par turbulence   A type of → turbulence with motions more vigorous in the horizontal than in the vertical direction occurring in internal radiation zone of → rotating stars. Same as → shear turbulence.→ rotation; → induced; → turbulence. rotation-powered pulsar (RPP)   تپار ِ چرخش-توان، پولسار ِ ~ ~   tapâr-e carxeš-tavân, pulsâr-e ~ ~Fr.:   A → neutron star that is spinning down as a result of → torques from → magnetic dipole radiation and particle emission. RPPs derive their energy primarily from the → rotation of the neutron star. The energy from their → spin-down appears as broad-band pulsations from → radio to → gamma-ray wavelengths and as a → wind of energetic particles flowing into their surrounding → pulsar wind nebulae. Since the discovery of RPPs through their radio → pulsations in 1967, more than 2000 → radio pulsars are now known with periods ranging from a few milliseconds to several seconds (A. K. Harding, 2013, Front. Phys. 8, 679).→ rotation; → power; → pulsar. rotation-vibration spectrum   بیناب ِ چرخش-شیوش   binâb-e carxeš-šivešFr.: spectre rotation-vibration   The spectrum of a molecule resulting from the simultaneous rotation and vibration of its constituent atoms.→ rotation; → vibration; → spectrum. rotational   چرخشی   carxeši (#)Fr.: rotationnel   Of or pertaining to → rotation.Rotational, adj., from → rotation + → -al.