An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory



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Number of Results: 230
šividan (#)

Fr.: vibrer   

To oscillate with a continuing periodic change relative to a fixed reference point or state of equilibrium. → oscillate.

From L. vibratus, p.p. of vibrare "to move quickly to and fro, shake" (cf. Lith. wyburiu "to wag the tail," Dan. vippe, Du. wippen "to swing," O.E. wipan "to wipe").

Šividan "to vibrate, move to and fro, to tremble," related to šodan, šow- "to go; to become;" Av. šiyav-, š(ii)auu- "to move, go," šiyavati "goes," šyaoθna- "activity; action; doing, working;" O.Pers. šiyav- "to go forth, set," ašiyavam "I set forth;" Skt. cyu- "to move to and fro, shake about; to stir," cyávate "stirs himself, goes;" Gk. kinein "to move;" Goth. haitan "call, be called;" O.E. hatan "command, call;" PIE base *kei- "to move to and fro."

šiveš (#)

Fr.: vibration   

1) The act of vibrating. The state of being vibrated.
2) A continuing → periodic  → oscillation relative to a fixed reference point or → equilibrium state.

Verbal noun from → vibrate.

šiveši (#)

Fr.: vibrationnel   

Of or pertaining to → vibration. → vibrational mode.

vibration; → -al.

vibrational energy
  کاروژ ِ شیوشی   
kâruž-e šiveši

Fr.: énergie de vibration, ~ vibratoire   

The energy due to the vibration of the molecules making up atoms (→ molecular vibration). A molecule in space can have energies in various forms: → rotational energy, vibrational energy, or electronic energy. These energies of molecules are → quantized and a particular molecule can exist in different rotational and vibrational → energy levels. The molecules can move from one level to another level only by a jump involving a finite amount of energy. → Quantum mechanics predicts that any molecule can never have zero vibrational energy, that is atoms can never be completely at rest relative to each other. The harmonically oscillating molecules can undergo vibrational changes determined by simple selection rules obtained from → Schrödinger equation.

vibrational; → energy.

vibrational frequency
  بسامد ِ شیوشی   
basâmad-e šiveši (#)

Fr.: fréquence de vibration, ~ vibrationnelle   

The frequency at which the atoms in a molecule vibrate. The frequencies of → molecular vibrations in diatomic molecules are in the order of 10-12 to 10-14 Hz. In such molecules, the only → vibrational mode available is along the bond. More complicated molecules have many types of vibration and stretching modes.

vibrational; → frequency.

vibrational mode
  ترز ِ شیوشی   
tarz-e šiveši

Fr.: mode de vibration, ~ vibratoire   

Any of the ways in which a → molecule vibrates. Each vibrational mode has a different → frequency frequency. The number of vibrational modes of a molecule is determined by the number of atoms in it. The number of vibrational modes for a non-linear molecule is 3N - 6, where N is the number of atoms making up the molecule. For a linear molecule it is 3N - 5.

vibrational; → mode.

vibrational transition
  گذرش ِ شیوشی   
gozareš-e šiveši

Fr.: transition vibrationnelle   

A transition between two → quantized  → levels of a → molecule that have different vibrational energies.

vibrational; → transition.

vibrational-rotational transition
  گذرش ِ چرخشی-شیوشی   
gozareš-e carxeši-šiveši

Fr.: transition vibrationnelle-rotationnelle   

A slight change in the → energy level of a → molecule due to → vibrational transition and/or → rotational transition.

vibrational; → rotational; → transition.


Fr.: victime   

A person or thing that suffers harm or death, from another or from some adverse act or circumstance.

M.Fr. victime, from L. victima "sacrificial animal."

Lišé, from Mid.Pers. lyš- / rêš- "to wound, hurt;" Pers. riš, rêš "wound;" Av. raēš- "to get hurt, suffer damage;" cf. Skt. reṣ "to get harmed."

Victorian period
  دوره‌ی ِ ویکتوریایی   
dowre-ye Viktoriyâ-yi

Fr.: période victorienne   

A series of 532 years, arising from the cycles of the Sun and Moon multiplied into one another. It was used by the Western churches for many years, in computing the time of Easter, till the → Gregorian calendar was established.

Named after Victorius (a French clergyman), who invented the period about the middle of the 5th century.

  ۱) دیداره؛ ۲) دیداری   
1) didâré; 2) didâri

Fr.: vidéo   

1) (n.) The visual part of a television broadcast.
Something that has been recorded on videotape, especially a movie or music performance.
2) (adj.) Of or pertaining to the electronic apparatus for producing the television picture.

From L. video "I see," from viderevision.

Didâré, didâri, from didâr "vision, sight," verbal noun from didan "to see" (Mid.Pers. ditan "to see, regard, catch sight of, contemplate, experience;" O.Pers. dī- "to see;" Av. dā(y)- "to see," didāti "sees;" cf. Skt. dhī- "to perceive, think, ponder; thought, reflection, meditation," dādhye; Gk. dedorka "have seen").

Vietnamese calendar
  گاهشمار ِ ویتنامی   
gâhšomâr-e Vietnâmi

Fr.: calendrier vietnamien   

A → lunisolar calendar used now in Vietnam mainly for determining seasonal holidays and cultural events. It is in fact the → Chinese calendar computed for Hanoi. It has 12 months of 29 or 30 days each (→ synodic month) and the year totals 355 days. The → lunar year is therefore 11 days shorter than its solar counterpart. To keep up with the solar pace, every 19 years seven extra months are added to the calendar. In practice, approximately every third year an → embolismic month is included. The New Year, called Tet, begins at the second → new moon after the → winter solstice. The Vietnamese calendar has some minor differences with the Chinese calendar. For example, it uses the cat and buffalo instead of the Chinese rabbit and cow respectively in the → zodiac.

From Vietnam "Viets of the South," from Viet the people's name + nam "south;" → lunar; → calendar.

did (#)


1) An instance of seeing or beholding; visual inspection.
2) Sight; vision (

M.E. v(i)ewe, from M.Fr. veue "sight," from V.L. *viduta, from *vidutus, from L. visus, p.p. of videre "to see," → vision.

Did, → vision.

viewing angle
  زاویه‌ی ِ دید   
zâviye-ye did (#)

Fr.: angle de visée   

The maximum angle at which a display, such as a TV screen, can be viewed with acceptable visual performance.

Viewing, from view, M.E. v(i)ewe (n.); M.Fr. veue "sight," feminine p.p. of veoir "to see," from L. videre "to see," → vision; → angle.

Zâviyé, → angle; didvision.

bistgâni (#)

Fr.: vicésimal   

The numeral system based on → twenty.

From L. vigesimus, variant of vicesimus, vicensimus "twentieth," from vigniti "twenty" + → -al.


Fr.: vignettage, dégradé   

The gradual reduction in energy through an optical system as the off-axis angle increases, resulting from limitations of the clear apertures of elements within the system.

From vignette "an unbordered picture, often a portrait, that shades off into the surrounding color at the edges;" "softening the edges of a picture in vignette style;" from Fr. vignette, O.Fr., diminutive of vigne "vineyard;" from L. vinea "vine, vineyard," from vinum "wine."

Labe-puš, literally "limb covering," from labé "limb," from lab "lip;" (Mid.Pers. lap; cf. L. labium; O.E. lippa; E. lip; Ger. Lefze) + puš present stem of pušidan "to cover; to put on" (Mid.Pers. pôšidan, pôš- "to cover; to wear;" cf. Mid.Pers. pôst; Mod.Pers. pust "skin, hide;" O.Pers. pavastā- "thin clay envelope used to protect unbaked clay tablets;" Skt. pavásta- "cover," Proto-Indo-Iranian *pauastā- "cloth").

  ده، دهکده   
deh, dehkadé

Fr.: village   

A small group of dwellings in a rural area, usually ranking in size between a hamlet and a town.

M.E. village, from O.Fr. village, from L. villaticus, ultimately from L. villa "country house," related to vicus "village, group of houses," vecinus "neighbor;" cf. Mid.Pers. wis "village," Manichean Mid.Pers. wys "to repose;" Khotanese bäsā "house;" O.Pers. viθ- "settlement;" Av. vis- "to enter;" cf. Skt. vis- "house;" Albanian vis- "place;" Gothic weihs "village;" E. suffix wich, -wick (as in Norwich and Brunswick); Iranian dialects/languages Xonsâri hos "house, home;" Lori, Laki hoš, höš, hovš "house, home;" Baluci ges "house, home;" Kermânshahi, Ilâmi, Lori huz "clan, family, tribe;" Parachi γos, γus "house, home;" Wakhi wiš- / wišt- "to set [of sun];" Yaghnavi wes-, ves- "to go down;" PIE *ueik- "to settle (down)."

Deh, dehkadé, from Mid.Pers. dêh "village, settlement, country;" loaned into Armenian deh "district;" O.Pers./Av. dahyu- "country."


Fr.: Vindemiatrix   

A star located in the → Virgo constellation, also called ε Virginis. It is a yellow → giant of apparent magnitude 2.83 and → spectral type G8 III. Vindemiatrix lies about 102 → light-years from Earth, has a luminosity 83 times the → solar luminosity, and a → surface temperature about 5,000 K.

L. Vindemiatrix "grape-harvestress," feminine of vindemiator "grape-hervester," translation of Gk. names Protrugeter, Protrugetes, and Trugeter used by Ptolemy, Plutarch, and other Gk. authors. The first of these words denoted "Fruit-plucking Herald." In Gk. trugos is the process of collecting the grapes. It has been argued that the first visibility of the star in morning light was the time of gathering the grapes. The original Gk. name was translated in Ar. as al-Mutaqaddim lil-Qaţāf (المتقدم للقطاف) "Harvest Precursor," and later to Almuredin maybe with the same meaning, but the etymology is not clear.

Angurcin "grape harvester," from angur "grape" (related to quré "unripe grape," angordé "a single grape, a berry;" cf. Skt. ankurá- "buds, sprout, shoot, blossom, swelling") + cin present stem of cidan "to gather, collect," related to gozidan "to choose, select" (Mid.Pers. cyn- "to gather, collect;" Av. ci- "to heap up, gather"

  مو، تاک، رز   
mow (#), tâk (#), raz (#)

Fr.: vigne   

Any of various plants, especially the grapevine, having long flexible stems that creep along the ground or climb by clinging to a support by means of tendrils, leafstalks, etc (

M.E., from O.Fr. vigne "vine, vinyard," from L. vinea "vine, vineyard," from vinum "wine," from PIE *win-o- "wine."

Mow, tâk, raz "vine," Persian words of unknown origin.


Fr.: violer   

To break, infringe, or transgress (a law, rule, agreement, promise, instructions, etc.). → parity violation.

M.E., from L. violatus p.p. of violare "to treat with violence, violate," from violentus "violent, " from vis "force, violence."

Enâhidan infinitive from enâh, from Av. aēnah- "violence, mischief, crime, outrage," from aēn- "to do violence to, to violate, to injure, to offend;" cf. Skt. énas- "offence, mischief, crime, sin;" Gk. ainos "terrible."

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