Fr.: parallaxe dynamique
A method for deriving the distance to a binary star. The angular diameter of the orbit of the stars around each other and their apparent brightness are observed. By applying Kepler's laws and the mass-luminosity relation, the distance of the binary star can be calculated.
Fr.: relaxation dynamique
The evolution over time of a gravitationally → bound system consisting of N components because of encounters between the components, as studied in → stellar dynamics. Due to this process, in a → star cluster, → low-mass stars may acquire larger random velocities, and consequently occupy a larger volume than → high-mass stars. As a result, massive stars sink to the cluster centre on a time-scale that is inversely proportional to their mass. See also → mass segregation.
→ dynamical; → relaxation.
Fr.: courant dynamique
A group of stars pervading the Solar neighbourhood and travelling in the → Galaxy with a similar spatial velocity, such as the → Ursa Major star cluster, The term dynamical stream is more appropriate than the traditional term supercluster since it involves stars of di fferent ages, not born at the same place nor at the same time. A possible explanation for the presence of young groups in the same area as those streams is that they have been put there by the → spiral wave associated with their formation place, while kinematics of the older stars of the sample have also been disturbed by the same wave. The seemingly peculiar chemical composition of the Hyades-Pleiades stream suggests that this stream originates from a specific galactocentric distance and that it was perturbed by a spiral wave at a certain moment and radially pushed by the wave in the solar neighbourhood. This would explain why this stream is composed of stars sharing a common metallicity but not a common age (Famaey et al. 2005, A&A 430, 165).
Fr.: système dynamique
A system composed of one or more entities in which one state develops into another state over the course of time.
Fr.: temps dynamique
The independent variable in the theories which describe the motions of bodies in the solar system. The most widely used form of it, known as Terrestrial Time (TT) or Terrestrial Dynamical Time (TDT) uses a fundamental 86,400 Systeme Internationale seconds (one day) as its fundamental unit. → Terrestrial Time; → Terrestrial Dynamical Time; → Barycentric Dynamical Time.
dynamical time scale
marpel-e zamâni-ye tavânik
Fr.: échelle de temps dynamique
1) The characteristic time it takes a protostellar cloud to collapse
if the pressure supporting it against gravity were suddenly removed;
also known as the → free-fall time.
→ dynamical; → time-scale.
Fr.: variable dynamique
Mechanics: One of the variables used to describe a system in classical mechanics, such as coordinates (of a particle), components of velocity, momentum, angular momentum, and functions of these quantities.
The branch of → mechanics that explains how particles and systems move under the influence of forces.
Referring to electrons in motion.
The phenomena, science, and applications of moving electric charges, as contrasted with → electrostatics. More specifically, the branch of physics concerned with the → interaction of → electric currents with → magnetic fields and → electric fields or with other electric currents.
first law of thermodynamics
qânun-e naxost-e garâtavânik
Fr.: première loi de la thermodynamique
The total energy of a → closed system is constant. This means that energy can be changed from one form to another, or transferred from one system to another, but it cannot be created or destroyed. A mathematical formulation of the first law is: δQ = δU + δW, where δQ is the heat transferred to the system, δU the change in internal energy (resulting in a rise or fall of temperature), and δW is the work done by the system.
→ first; → law; → thermodynamics.
Fr.: dynamique des fluides
The branch of → fluid mechanics that deals with the movement of gases and liquids.
Fr.: dynamique galactique
The study of the → motions of the → stars, → gas, and → dark matter in a → galaxy to explain the main → morphological and → kinematical features of the galaxy.
Fr.: dynamique hamiltonienne
The study of → dynamical systems in terms of the → Hamilton's equations.
→ Hamiltonian function; → dynamics.
Of or pertaining to → hydrodynamics.
Fr.: équation hydrodynamique
Fluid mechanics: A → partial differential equation which describes the motion of an element of fluid subjected to different forces such as pressure, gravity, and frictions.
→ hydrodynamic; → equation.
Fr.: équilibre hydrodynamique
The state of a star when all its internal forces are in equilibrium. The main forces are gas pressure, radiation pressure due to thermonuclear fusion that tends to disrupt the star, and the opposing gravity. → hydrostatic equilibrium.
→ hydrodynamic; → equilibrium.
The branch of physics dealing with the motion, energy, and pressure of neutral → fluids.
ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD)
meqnâtohidrotavânik-e ârmâni, ~ minevâr
Fr.: magnétohydrodynamique idéale
Magnetohydrodynamics of a → plasma with very large (infinite) → conductivity. In this condition, → Ohm's law reduces to E = -v × B, where E represents → electric field, B → magnetic field, and v the → fluid velocity. Ideal MHD is the simplest model to describe the dynamics of plasmas immersed in a magnetic field. It is concerned with → one-fluid magnetohydrodynamics and neglects → resistivity. This theory treats the plasma composed of many charged particles with locally neutral charge as a continuous single → fluid. Ideal MHD does not provide information on the velocity distribution and neglects the physics relating to wave-particle interactions, as does the two-fluid theory as well. It does have the advantage that the macroscopic dynamics of the → magnetized plasma can be analyzed in realistic three-dimensional geometries (K. Nishikawa & M. Wakatani, 2000, Plasma Physics, Springer). See also → non-ideal magnetohydrodynamics.
→ ideal; → magnetohydrodynamics.
Fr.: dynamique lagrangienne
A reformulation of → Newtonian mechanics in which dynamical properties of the system are described in terms of generalized variables. In this approach the → generalized coordinates and → generalized velocities are treated as independent variables. Indeed applying Newton's laws to complicated problems can become a difficult task, especially if a description of the motion is needed for systems that either move in a complicated manner, or other coordinates than → Cartesian coordinates are used, or even for systems that involve several objects. Lagrangian dynamics encompasses Newton dynamics, and moreover leads to the concept of the → Hamiltonian of the system and a process by means of which it can be calculated. The Hamiltonian is a cornerstone in the field of → quantum mechanics.
→ Lagrangian; → dynamics.