gauge transformation tarâdis-e gaz (#) Fr.: transformation de jauge A change of the fields of a gauge theory that does not change the value of any measurable quantity. → gauge; → transformation. |
grain formation diseš-e dâné Fr.: formation des grains The process by which dust grains are assembled or produced. |
hierarchical structure formation diseš-e sâxtâr-e pâygâni Fr.: formation de structures hiérarchiques A cosmological → structure formation model in which the smallest gravitationally bound structures (→ quasars and galaxies) form first, followed by → groups, → galaxy clusters, and → superclusters of galaxies. → hierarchical; → structure; → formation. |
image formation diseš-e vine, ~ tasvir Fr.: formation de l'image The meeting of light rays emanating from an object after crossing an optical system. |
informatics azdâyik (#) Fr.: informatique The science concerned with gathering, manipulating, storing, retrieving, and classifying recorded → information. Also called → information science, computer science. Informatics, from informat(ion), → information + → ics. |
information azdâyeš (#) Fr.: information 1) Knowledge gained through study, communication, research, instruction, etc. Verbal noun of → inform. |
information content parbane-ye azdâyeš Fr.: contenu d'information The → negative of the → logarithm of the → probability that a particular → message or → symbol will be emitted by a → source. → information; → content. |
information entropy dargâšt-e azdâyeš Fr.: entropie de l'information The measure of information, which is usually expressed by the average number of bits needed for storage or communication. In other words, the degree to which the values of a → random variable X are dispersed. If the → probability density function of X is P(x), the entropy is defined by: H(X) = -Σ P(x) log P(x). Also called → Shannon entropy. → information; → entropy. |
information flow tacân-e azdâyeš Fr.: flot d'information The flow of data into a system or to the end users. → information; → flow. |
information paradox pârâdaxš-e azdâyeš Fr.: paradoxe de l'information A paradox raised in 1976 by S. Hawking (1942-2018) whose analysis of the thermodynamic properties of → black holes led him to the prediction that black holes are not in fact black, but radiate due to quantum effects. This implied that, due to the → Hawking radiation, a black hole would eventually evaporate away, leaving nothing. This deduction presented a problem for → quantum mechanics, which maintains that information can never be lost. This topic is a matter of intense debate. Many solutions have been proposed, but all of them have serious drawbacks. In order to analyze better these solutions one needs a quantum gravity theory, which does not exist at the moment. In brief, either the idea of → quantum unitarity must be given up, or a mechanism should be found by which information is not lost after it falls into a black hole. → information; → paradox. |
information science dâneš-e azdâyeš azdâyik (#) Fr.: informatique Same as → informatics. → information; → science. |
information technology tašnik-šenâsi-ye azdâyeš Fr.: technologie de l'informtion The science and activity of receiving, storing, processing, and transmitting information by using → computers. → information; → technology. |
information theory negare-ye azdâyeš (#) Fr.: théorie de l'information The mathematical theory that defines, quantifies,
and analyzes the concept of → information.
It involves → probability theory in
→ transmission of → messages
when the → bits of information are subject to various
distortions. Its goal is to enable as much information as possible to be reliably
stored on a medium, retrieved, or communicated. → information; → theory. |
informative azdâmand Fr.: informatif Giving → information, providing information, imparting → knowledge. |
isolated massive star formation diseš-e vâyutide-ye setâre-ye porjerm Fr.: formation isolée d'étoile massive Massive star formation outside → OB associations. Recent observational findings suggest that → massive star formation is a collective process. In other words, massive stars form in → cluster environments and the mass of the most massive star in a cluster is correlated with the mass of the cluster itself. Nevertheless, other observational results give grounds for supposing that massive stars do not necessarily form in clusters but that they can be formed as isolated stars or in very small groups. According to statistical studies nearly 95% of Galactic → O star population is located in clusters or OB associations. This means that a small percentage, about 5%, of high mass stars may form in isolation. Isolation is meant not traceable to an origin in an OB association. This definition therefore excludes → runaway massive stars, which are thought to result from either dynamical interaction in massive dense clusters, or via a kick from a → supernova explosion in a → binary system. Alternatively, isolated massive star has been defined as follows: An O-type star belonging to a cluster whose total mass is < 100 Msun and moreover is devoid of → B stars (Selier et al. 2011, A&A 529, A40 and references therein). → isolated; → massive star; → formation. |
Legendre transformation tarâdiseš-e Legendre Fr.: transformation de Legendre A mathematical operation that transforms one function into another. Two differentiable functions f and g are said to be Legendre transforms of each other if their first derivatives are inverse functions of each other: df(x)/dx = (dg(x)/dx)^{-1}. The functions f and g are said to be related by a Legendre transformation. |
Lorentz transformation tarâdis-e Lorentz Fr.: transformation de Lorentz A set of linear equations that expresses the time and space coordinates of one → reference frame in terms of those of another one when one frame moves at a constant velocity with respect to the other. In general, the Lorentz transformation allows a change of the origin of a coordinate system, a rotation around the origin, a reversal of spatial or temporal direction, and a uniform movement along a spatial axis. If the system S'(x',y',z',t') moves at the velocity v with respect to S(x,y,z,t) in the positive direction of the x-axis, the Lorentz transformations will be: x' = γ(x - vt), y' = y, z' = z, t' = γ [t - (vx/c^{2})], where c is the → velocity of light and γ = [1 - (v/c)^{2}]^{-1/2}. For the special case of velocities much less than c, the Lorentz transformation reduces to → Galilean transformation. → Lorentz; → transformation. |
lunar formation diseš-e Mâng Fr.: formation de la Lune See → Moon formation. |
Moon formation diseš-e Mâng Fr.: formation de la Lune Any of several theories about how the → Moon originated, among which: → fission theory, → capture theory, → co-formation theory, and → giant impact hypothesis. The model that is best supported by all the available data is the giant impact hypothesis. See also → canonical model. |
performative 1) pergâli; 2) vâpeš-e pergalandé Fr.: 1) performatif; d'interprétation; 2) performativité 1) Relating to or of → performance, especially of
dramatic or artistic performance. |