# An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and AstrophysicsEnglish-French-Persian

## فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

### M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 61 Search : gene
 general secretary   هروین دبیر   harvin dabirFr.: secrétaire général   → general; → secretary. generalization   هروین‌کرد، هروینش   harvinkard, harvinešFr.: généralisation   The act or process of generalizing; → generalize. A result of this process; a general statement, proposition, or principle.Verbal noun of → generalize. generalize   هروین کردن، هروینیدن   harvin kardan, harvinidanFr.: généraliser   To make general, to include under a general term; to reduce to a general form. To infer or form a general principle, opinion, conclusion, etc. from only a few facts, examples, or the like.→ general; → -ize. generalized   هروینیده   harvinidéFr.: généralisé   Made general. → generalized coordinates; → generalized velocities.P.p. of → generalize generalized coordinates   هماراهای ِ هروینیده   hamârâhâ-ye harvinidéFr.: coordonnées généralisées   In a material system, the independent parameters which completely specify the configuration of the system, i.e. the position of its particles with respect to the frame of reference. Usually each coordinate is designated by the letter q with a numerical subscript. A set of generalized coordinates would be written as q1, q2, ..., qn. Thus a particle moving in a plane may be described by two coordinates q1, q2, which may in special cases be the → Cartesian coordinates x, y, or the → polar coordinates r, θ, or any other suitable pair of coordinates. A particle moving in a space is located by three coordinates, which may be Cartesian coordinates x, y, z, or → spherical coordinates r, θ, φ, or in general q1, q2, q3. The generalized coordinates are normally a "minimal set" of coordinates. For example, in Cartesian coordinates the simple pendulum requires two coordinates (x and y), but in polar coordinates only one coordinate (θ) is required. So θ is the appropriate generalized coordinate for the pendulum problem. generalized forces   نیروهای ِ هروینیده   niruhâ-ye harvinidéFr.: forces généralisées   In → Lagrangian dynamics, forces related to → generalized coordinates. For any system with n generalized coordinates qi (i = 1, ..., n), generalized forces are expressed by Fi = ∂L/∂qi, where L is the → Lagrangian function.→ generalized; → force. generalized momenta   جنباک‌های ِ هروینیده   jonbâkhâ-ye harvinidéFr.: quantité de mouvement généralisée   In → Lagrangian dynamics, momenta related to → generalized coordinates. For any system with n generalized coordinates qi (i = 1, ..., n), generalized momenta are expressed by pi = ∂L/∂q.i, where L is the → Lagrangian function.→ generalized; → momentum. generalized velocities   تنداهای ِ هروینیده   tondâhâ-ye harvinidéFr.: vitesses généralisées   The time → derivatives of the → generalized coordinates of a system.→ generalized; → velocity. generate   آزانیدن   âzânidanFr.: générer   To bring into existence; create; produce. Math.: To trace (a figure) by the motion of a point, straight line, or curve.Generate, from M.E., from L. generatus "produce," p.p. of generare "to bring forth," from gener-, genus "descent, birth," akin to Pers. zâdan, Av. zan- "to give birth," as explained below.Âzânidan, from â- nuance/strengthening prefix + zân, from Av. zan- "to bear, give birth to a child, be born," infinitive zazāite, zāta- "born;" Mod.Pers. zâdan, present stem zā- "to bring forth, give birth" (Mid.Pers. zâtan; cf. Skt. jan- "to produce, create; to be born," janati "begets, bears;" Gk. gignomai "to happen, become, be born;" L. gignere "to beget;" PIE base *gen- "to give birth, beget") + -idan infinitive suffix. generation   آزانش   âzânešFr.: génération   1) A coming into being. 2) The → production of → energy (→ heat or → electricity).Verbal noun of → generate. generative   آزاننده، آزانشی   âzânandé, âzânešiFr.: génératif   1) Capable of producing or creating. 2) Pertaining to the production of offspring.→ generate; → -ive. generator   آزانگر   âzângarFr.: générateur   1) A machine for converting one form of energy into another. 2) Geometry: That which creates a line, a surface, a solid by its motion.From L. generator "producer," from genera(re)→ generate + -tor a suffix forming personal agent nouns from verbs and, less commonly, from nouns.Âzângar, from âzân the stem of âzânidan→ generate + -gar suffix of agent nouns, from kar-, kardan "to do, to make" (Mid.Pers. kardan; O.Pers./Av. kar- "to do, make, build," Av. kərənaoiti "makes;" cf. Skt. kr- "to do, to make," krnoti "makes," karma "act, deed;" PIE base kwer- "to do, to make"). genetic   ژنتیک، ژنتیکی   ženetik (#), ženetiki (#)Fr.: génétique   Pertaining or according to → genetics or → genes.From Gk. genetikos, from genesis "origin," → gene; → -ic. genetics   ژنتیک   ženetik (#)Fr.: génétique   The study of heredity and inheritance, of the transmission of traits from one individual to another, of how genes are transmitted from generation to generation.From → genetic and → -ics. heterogeneity   دگرگنی   degargeniFr.: hétérogénéité   The quality or state of being → heterogeneous. See also → homogeneity, → inhomogeneity.Noun from → heterogeneous. heterogeneous   دگرگن   degargenFr.: hétérogène   1) Composed of parts of different kinds; having widely dissimilar elements or constituents. See also → homogeneous, → inhomogeneous. 2) Chemistry: A mixture that does not have uniform composition and properties throughout; composed of different substances or the same substance in different phases.→ hetero- + -genous, → homogeneous. homogeneity   همگنی   hamgeni (#)Fr.: homogénéité   State or quality of having a uniform appearance or composition, being homogeneous→ homogeneous + → -ity. homogeneous   همگن   hamgen (#)Fr.: homogène   1) Of uniform composition or having a common property throughout. 2) Math.: Of the same kind so as to be commensurable. Of the same degree or dimension. → anisotropic homogeneous cosmological model, → homogeneous fluid, → homogeneous linear differential equation, → homogeneous Universe, → homogeneous turbulence, → inhomogeneous, → nonhomogeneous, → nonhomogeneous linear differential equation.Homogeneous, from M.L. homogeneus, from Gk. homogenes "of the same kind," from homos "same," → homo-, + genos "race, kind," gonos "birth, offspring," from PIE base *gen-/*gon-/*gn- "to produce, beget, be born," cf. Av. zan- "to bear, give birth to a child, be born," infinitive zazāite, zāta- "born," zana- "race" (in sruuô.zana- "belonging to the race of the horned ones"), O.Pers. zana- "tribe" (in paru-zana- "consisting of many tribes"), Skt. janati "begets, bears," jana- "creature, human being, race, tribe, people;" L. genus "race, stock, kind," gignere "to beget."Hamgen "of the same kind, like each other; friend, partner," from ham-, → homo-, + gen "kind," O.Pers./Av. zana- "race; tribe," cognate with L. genus, as above). Alternatively, gen may be a variant of Mid./Mod.Pers. gôn/gun "kind, type; manner; color, skin color," from Av. gaona- "hair, hair color, color." homogeneous fluid   شارّه‌ی ِ همگن   šârre-ye hamgen (#)Fr.: fluide homogène   A fluid with uniform properties throughout, but meteorologists sometimes designate as homogeneous a fluid with constant density.→ homogeneous, → fluid. homogeneous linear differential equation   هموگش ِ دگرسانه‌ای ِ خطی همگن   hamugeš-e degarsâne-yi-ye xatti hamgenFr.: équation différentielle linéaire homogène   A → linear differential equation if the right-hand member is zero, Q(x) = 0, on interval I.→ homogeneous; → linear; → differential; → equation.