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The science concerned with the functions of life, or vital activity and force.
From biotic, from Gk. biotikos "of or pertaining to life," from → bio- + -tic a suffix equivalent in meaning to → -ic.
âmâr-e Bose-Einstein (#)
Fr.: statistique de Bose-Einstein
Same as → Bose-Einstein distribution.
→ boson; → Einstein; → statistics.
The area of → optics which treats of the laws and properties of light reflected from reflective surfaces.
From Gk. katoptrikos, from katoptron "mirror" (from kat-, → cata-, + op- "to see," → optics, + -tron suffix of instruments) + -ikos, → -ics.
Bâztâbik, from bâztâb, → reflection, + -ik, → -ics.
mekânik-e âsmâni (#)
Fr.: mécanique céleste
The branch of astronomy that deals with the calculation of motions of celestial bodies under the action of their mutual gravitational attractions.
A → quantum field theory of the → interaction of → quarks possessing a distinctive property called → color, in which the quarks exchange → gluons in a manner that is analogous to the interaction of → charged particles in → electrodynamics.
mekânik kelâsik (#)
Fr.: mécanique classique
The branch of physical science which deals with the motions of bodies travelling at velocities that are very much less than that of light in a vacuum. Same as → Newtonian mechanics.
fizik-e kelâsik (#)
Fr.: physique classique
Physics not taking into account → quantum mechanics or Einstein's → relativity theory. Classical physics includes the branches developed before the beginning of the 20th cantury: Mechanics, Acoustics, Optics, Thermodynamics, and Electricity and Magnetism. Most of classical physics is concerned with matter and energy on the normal scale of observation.
Fr.: optique cohérente
A branch of optics that uses coherent radiation to produce holographic three-dimensional images of objects.
A branch of mathematics dealing with the → combination and → permutation of sets of elements and mathematical relations that characterize their properties.
From combinator(ial) (from combinatorial analysis), + → -ics.
Miyâzešik, from miyâzeš, → combination, + -k, → -ics.
zamzâyik (#), zamzâyi (#)
A branch of physics that studies the methods of producing very low temperatures (below 150 °C) and the behavior of materials and processes at those temperatures.
From cryo- "freezing" + -gen(y) "having to do with production" +
Zamâzâyik, from zam "cold (weather)" + zâyi "generating"
Fr.: physique déterministe
The classical representation of the laws of nature according to which a particular future state (B) will arise from a particular past one (A). In contrast to → quantum physics which deals with the probability for the transition from A to B.
Deterministic, adj. of determinism; → physics.
The branch of → mechanics that explains how particles and systems move under the influence of forces.
The science that deals with description and analysis of the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services.
From L. oeconomicus "well ordered," from Gk. oikonomikos "practiced in the management of a household or family," from oikonomia, from oiko- "house," → eco-, + -nomia "rule, law," → -nomy; + → -ics.
The phenomena, science, and applications of moving electric charges, as contrasted with → electrostatics. More specifically, the branch of physics concerned with the → interaction of → electric currents with → magnetic fields and → electric fields or with other electric currents.
The science dealing with the development and application of → devices and → systems involving the flow of → electrons in a → vacuum, in → gaseous media, and in → semiconductors (Dictionary.com).
The branch of → electricity dealing with the phenomena and properties of stationary → electric charges, as opposed to → electrodynamics. It involves the build-up of charge on the → surface of → objects due to → contact with other surfaces.
The total energy relations and transformations of energy within a particular physical, chemical, or biological system.
The study of the relationship between people and their working environment, in particular its effect on a person's efficiency. Ergonomics is applied in designing equipment and office systems to maximize productivity by reducing discomfort and fatigue of people in their workplace.
From Gk. ergon "work," → erg, + -nomics, → -nomy, → -ics.
Varzdâtik, from varz "work, " cognate with Gk. ergon, → erg, + dâtik "law, rule," → -nomy.
extreme adaptive optics
nurik-e niyâveši-ye ostom
Fr.: optique adaptative extrême
An → adaptive optics system with high-contrast imaging and spectroscopic capabilities. Extreme adaptive optics systems enable the detection of faint objects (e.g., → exoplanets) close to bright sources that would otherwise overwhelm them. This is accomplished both by increasing the peak intensity of point-source images and by removing light scattered by the atmosphere and the telescope optics into the → seeing disk.
âmâr-e Fermi-Dirac (#)
Fr.: distribution Fermi-Dirac
The statistical distribution of → fermions over the energy states for a system in → thermodynamic equilibrium. In other words, the probability that a given energy level be occupied by a fermion.
→ fermi, → Dirac function; → statistics.
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