Fr.: loi dynamique
A law that describes the motion of individual particles in a system, in contrast to → statistical laws.
Faraday's law of induction
qânun-e darhazeš-e Faraday
Fr.: loi d'induction de Faraday
The induced → electromotive force in a circuit is equal in magnitude and opposite in sign to the rate of change of the → magnetic flux through the surface bounded by the circuit. Mathematically, it is expressed as: ∇ x E = -∂B/∂t, which is one of the four → Maxwell's equations.
qânun-e Fechner (#)
Fr.: loi de Fechner
See → Weber-Fechner law.
first law of thermodynamics
qânun-e naxost-e garâtavânik
Fr.: première loi de la thermodynamique
The total energy of a → closed system is constant. This means that energy can be changed from one form to another, or transferred from one system to another, but it cannot be created or destroyed. A mathematical formulation of the first law is: δQ = δU + δW, where δQ is the heat transferred to the system, δU the change in internal energy (resulting in a rise or fall of temperature), and δW is the work done by the system.
→ first; → law; → thermodynamics.
Fr.: loi de Freeman
A statistical finding about "normal" → spiral galaxies, whereby there is an upper limit on the mean central → surface brightness of disks. This value is constant for different spiral types, amounting to 21.65 ± 0.30 mag arcsec2 in the B band.
Named after K. C. Freeman (1970, Ap.J. 160, 811); → law.
Galileo's law of falling bodies
qânun-e Gâlilé darbâre-ye oft-e jesmhâ
Fr.: loi galiléenne de la chute des corps
In the absence of air resistance, any two bodies that are dropped from rest at the same moment will reach the ground at the same time regardless of their mass.
Galileo (1564-1642) was the first to determine, at the start of the seventeenth century, the law of constant acceleration of free-falling bodies. → law; → fall; → body.
Gauss's law for electricity
qânun-e Gauss dar barq
Fr.: loi de Gauss en électricité
The total electric flux ψ out of an arbitrary closed surface in free space is equal to the net charge within the surface divided by the → permittivity. In differential form: ∇ . E = ρ/ε0, where ρ is the → charge density and ε0 the permittivity. The integral form of the law: ∫E . dS = Q/ε0 (closed surface integral). This is one of the four → Maxwell's equations.
→ gauss; → law; → electricity.
Gauss's law for magnetism
qânun-e Gauss dar meqnâtmandi
Fr.: loi de Gauss en magnétisme
The → magnetic flux through an arbitrary closed surface equals zero. Mathematically, in differential form: ∇ . B = 0 and in integral form: ΦB = ∫B.dS = 0 (closed surface integral). This is one of the four → Maxwell's equations. This law expresses the fact that there are no free magnetic poles (→ monopoles) in nature and that all the lines of force of a magnetic field are closed curves.
qânun-e Gay-Lussac (#)
Fr.: loi de Gay-Lussac
1) Law of combining volumes. The volumes of gases used and produced in a
chemical reaction, are in the ratio of small whole numbers when measured
at constant temperature and pressure.
Named after Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac (1778-1850), a French chemist and physicist; → law.
Fr.: loi de Hale
The leader and → follower spots have opposite polarities on either side of the equator. This reverses after the ~11 year → solar cycle. Also called Hale-Nicholson's law.
Named after George Ellery Hale (1868-1938), American astronomer; → law.
qânun-e Hooke (#)
Fr.: loi de Hooke
The law stating that if a body is deformed the → strain
produced is directly proportional to the applied → stress.
If the elastic limit is not exceeded, the material returns to its original shape and
size on the removal of the stress. Hooke's law forms the basis of the theory of
Named after Robert Hooke (1635-1703), British scientist who described the relationship in 1676; → law.
Fr.: loi de Hubble
Fr.: loi de Hubble-Lemaître
The speed with which a → galaxy cluster recedes from us is directly proportional to its distance. It can be stated as v = H0d, where v is the recessional velocity, H0 the → Hubble-Lamaitre constant, and d the distance. See also → Hubble-Lemaitre flow. It should be underlined that Hubble was not the first to discover the → velocity-distance relation. Two years before Hubble, in 1927, Georges Lemaître (1894-1966) had derived the relation and published it in a paper in French which remained neglected (→ Friedmann-Lemaitre Universe).
The International Astronomical Union (IAU) at its 30th Meeting approved the Resolution B4 proposed by the IAU Executive Committee recommending the use of Hubble-Lemaitre law instead of Hubble's law, after Edwin Hubble (1889-1953), the American astronomer who published his results in 1929 and Georges Lemaître, Belgian priest and astronomer, who published a paper on the expansion of the Universe in 1927; → law.
ideal gas law
qânun-e gâz-e ârmâni, ~ ~ minevâr
Fr.: loi des gaz parfaits
An → equation of state that relates pressure (P), temperature (T), and volume (V) of an ideal or → perfect gas: PV = nRT, where n is the number of → moles of gas present and R is the → universal gas constant. Equivalently: PV = NkT, where N is the number of atoms of gas present and k is → Boltzmann's constant.
inverse square law
qânun-e tavân-e do-ye vârun, qânun-e câruš-e vârun
Fr.: loi en carré inverse
A force law that applies to the → gravitational and → electromagnetic forces in which the magnitude of the force decreases in proportion to the inverse of the square of the → distance.
Fr.: loi de Joy
Sunspot pairs or groups are tilted with the → leader spots closer to the equator than the → follower spots. The tilt of bipolar sunspot pairs increases with latitude.
Alfred Harrison Joy (1882-1973), an American astronomer; → law.
Kepler's first law
qânun-e naxost-e Kepler (#)
Fr.: première loi de Kepler
Planets move in elliptical paths, with the Sun at one focus of the ellipse (year 1609).
qânunhâ-ye Kepler (#)
Fr.: lois de Kepler
1) The planets move about the Sun in ellipses, at one focus of which the Sun is situated.
Kepler's second law
qânun-e dovom-e Kepler (#)
Fr.: deuxième loi de Kepler
A line joining a planet to the Sun sweeps out equal areas in equal intervals of time (year 1609).
Kepler's third law
qânun-e sevom-e Kepler (#)
Fr.: troisième loi de Kepler
The ratio between the square of a planet's → orbital period (P) to the cube of the mean distance from the Sun (a) is the same for all planets: P2∝ a3 (year 1618). More accurately, P2 = (4π2a3) / [G(M1 + M2)], where M1 and M2 are the masses of the two orbiting objects in → solar masses and G is the → gravitational constant. In our solar system M1 = 1. The → semi-major axis size (a is expressed in → astronomical units and the period (P) is measured in years.