solar magnetic field
meydân-e meqnâtisi-ye xoršid (#)
Fr.: champ magnétique solaire
The Sun's magnetic field which is probably created by the → differential rotation of the Sun together with the movement of charged particles in the → convective zone. Understanding how the solar magnetic field comes about is the fundamental problem of Solar Physics. The solar magnetic field is responsible for all solar magnetic phenomena, such as → sunspots, → solar flares, → coronal mass ejections, and the → solar wind. The solar magnetic fields are observed from the → Zeeman broadening of spectral lines, → polarization effects on radio emission, and from the channeling of charged particles into visible → coronal streamers. The strength of Sun's average magnetic field is 1 → gauss (twice the average field on the surface of Earth, around 0.5 gauss), and can be as strong as 4,000 Gauss in the neighborhood of a large sunspot.
spin magnetic moment
gaštâvar-e meqnâtisi-ye espin (#)
Fr.: moment magnétique de spin
The magnetic moment associated with the → spin angular momentum of a charged particle. The direction of the magnetic moment is opposite to the direction of the angular momentum. The magnitude of the magnetic moment is given by: μ = -g(q / 2m)J, where q is the charge, m is the mass, and J the angular momentum. The parameter g is a characteristic of the state of the atom. It would be 1 for a pure orbital moment, or 2 for a spin moment, or some other number in between for a complicated system like an atom. The quantity in the parenthesis for the electron is the → Bohr magneton. The electron spin magnetic moment is important in the → spin-orbit interaction which splits atomic energy levels and gives rise to → fine structure in the spectra of atoms. It is also a factor in the interaction of atom with external fields, → Zeeman effect.
stellar magnetic field
meydân-e meqnâtisi-ye setâre-yi
Fr.: champ magnétique stellaire
The → magnetic field associated with a star. Magnetic fields are common among stars of solar and lower masses. So far definitive detections of fields in stars with masses ~1.5 Msun have, for the most part, been made for objects having anomalous chemical abundances (e.g., the → chemically peculiar A and B stars). Recently, however, observations of cyclic variability in the properties of → stellar winds from luminous → OB stars have been interpreted as evidence for the presence of large-scale magnetic fields in the surface layers and atmospheres of these objects (→ magnetic massive star). These inferences have been bolstered by the unambiguous measurement of a weak (~ 360 G) field in the chemically normal B1 IIIe star → Beta Cephei. These results suggest that magnetic fields of moderate strength might be more prevalent among → hot stars than had previously been thought. At the present time, the origin of magnetism in massive stars is not well understood. If the magnetic field of a hot star is produced by → dynamo effect in the → convective core, then a mechanism for transporting the field to the stellar surface must be identified. The finite electrical conductivity of the envelope leads to the outward diffusion of any fields contained therein, but only over an extended period of time. Estimates indicate that for stars more massive than a few solar masses, the resistive diffusion time across the radiative interior exceeds the → main sequence lifetime. Another possibility is that dynamo fields are advected from the core to the surface by rotation-induced → meridional circulation (MacGregor & Cassinelli, 2002, astro-ph/0212224).
toroidal magnetic field
meydân-e meqnâtisi-ye cambarvâr
Fr.: champ magnétique toroïdal
A magnetic field which is generated in a → plasma inside a → toroid, as in a → tokamak, by the electric current which spirals around the toroid. Toroidal field has no radial component. → poloidal magnetic field.
uniform magnetic field
meydân-e meqnâtisi-ye yekdis
Fr.: champ magnétique uniforme
A → magnetic field whose direction does not change and whose strength is constant at every point.