An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory



<< < alm Ger Lym man Ram tas > >>

Number of Results: 107 Search : man
Raman effect
  اُسکر ِ رامان   
oskar-e Raman

Fr.: effet Raman   

Same as → Raman scattering.

Named after the Indian physicist Sir Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman (1888-1970), who discovered the effect; recipient of the 1930 Nobel Prize in Physics; → effect.

Raman scattering
  پراکنش ِ رامان   
parâkaneš-e Raman (#)

Fr.: diffusion Raman   

The scattering of monochromatic light (visible or ultraviolet) by molecules in which the scattered light differs in wavelength from the incident light. It is caused by the light's interaction with the vibrational or rotational energy of the medium's scattering molecules.

Raman effect; → scattering.

pasmând (#)

Fr.: rémanence   

An effect that remains in a system for a while after the physical cause has been removed. For example the light remaining in a detector after elimination of the source, or the magnetic induction that remains in a material after removal of the magnetizing field.

From reman(ent), → remanent + -ence a noun suffix.

Noun of → pasmân.


Fr.: rémanent   

Possessing → remanence.

M.E. from L. remanent- (stem of remanens), pr.p. of remanere "to remain, stay behind," from → re- "back" + manere "to stay, remain," cognate with Pers. mândan "to stay, remain," as below.

Pasmân, from pas- "behind," variant pošt "back; the back; behind" (Mid.Pers. pas "behind, before, after;" O.Pers. pasā "after;" Av. pasca "behind (of space); then, afterward (of time);" cf. Skt. paścā "behind, after, later;" L. post, as above; O.C.S. po "behind, after;" Lith. pas "at, by;" PIE *pos-, *posko-) + mân present stem of mândan "to remain, stay" (mân "house, home;" Mid.Pers. mândan "to remain, stay;" O.Pers. mān- "to remain, dwell;" Av. man- "to remain, dwell; to wait;" Gk. menein "to remain;" L. manere "to stay, abide" (Fr. maison, ménage; E. manor, mansion, permanent); PIE base *men- "to remain, wait for").

Riemann curvature tensor
  تانسور ِ خمیدگی ِ ریمان   
tânsor-e xamidegi-ye Riemann

Fr.: tenseur de courbure de Riemann   

A 4th → rank tensor that characterizes the deviation of the geometry of space from the Euclidean type. The curvature tensor Rλμνκ is defined through the → Christoffel symbols Γλμν as follows: Rλμνκ = (∂Γλμκ)/(∂xν) - (∂Γλμν)/(∂xκ) + ΓημκΓλην - ΓημνΓληκ.

Riemannian geometry; → curvature; → tensor.

Riemann problem
  پراسه‌ی ِ ریمان   
parâse-ye Riemann

Fr.: problème de Riemann   

The combination of a → partial differential equation and a → piecewise constant → initial condition. The Riemann problem is a basic tool in a number of numerical methods for wave propagation problems. The canonical form of the Riemann problem is: ∂u/∂t + ∂f(u)/∂x = 0, x ∈ R, t > 0, u(x,0) = ul if x < 0, and u(x,0) = ur if x > 0 .

Riemann's geometry; → problem.

Riemann's geometry
  هندسه‌ی ِ ریمان   
hendese-ye Riemann

Fr.: géométrie de Riemann   

Same as → Riemannian geometry.

Riemannian; → geometry.

Riemanni (#)

Fr.: riemannien   

Of or pertaining to Georg Friedrich Bernhard Riemann (1826-1866) or his mathematics findings. → Riemannian geometry, → Riemannian manifold, → Riemannian metric, → Riemann problem, → Riemann curvature tensor.

After the German mathematician Georg Friedrich Bernhard Riemann (1826-1866), the inventor of the elliptic form of → non-Euclidean geometry, who made important contributions to analysis and differential geometry, some of them paving the way for the later development of → general relativity.

Riemannian geometry
  هندسه‌ی ِ ریمانی   
hendese-ye Riemanni

Fr.: géométrie riemannienne   

A → non-Euclidean geometry in which there are no → parallel lines, and the sum of the → angles of a → triangle is always greater than 180°. Riemannian figures can be thought of as figures constructed on a curved surface. The geometry is called elliptic because the section formed by a plane that cuts the curved surface is an ellipse.

Riemannian; → geometry.

Riemannian manifold
  بسلای ِ ریمانی   
baslâ-ye Riemanni

Fr.: variété riemannienne   

A → manifold on which there is a defined → Riemannian metric (Douglas N. Clark, 2000, Dictionary of Analysis, Calculus, and Differential Equations).

Riemannian; → metric.

Riemannian metric
  متریک ِ ریمانی   
metrik-e Riemanni

Fr.: métrique riemannienne   

A positive-definite inner product, (.,.)x, on Tx(M), the tangent space to a manifold M at x, for each x  ∈ M, which varies continually with x (Douglas N. Clark, Dictionary of Analysis, Calculus, and Differential Equations).

Riemannian; → metric.

Roman calendar
  گاهشمار ِ رومی   
gâhšomâr-e Rumi

Fr.: calendrier romain   

Any of several → lunar calendars used by Romans before the advent of the → Julian calendar in 46 B.C. The original Roman calendar, which had 10 months and 304 days, went back to the Greek calendar, although Romulas, the ruler of Rome, is given credit for starting the Roman calendar. Originally, the Roman calendar started the year in March with the → vernal equinox. The Roman calendar went through several changes from 800 B.C. to the Julian calendar. The 800 B.C. calendar had 10 months and a winter period, with a year of 304 days. In this calendar, the first month, March, was followed by Aprilis, Maius, Junius, Quintilis, Sextilis, September, October, November, December, and Winter. The months starting with and following Quintilis all used the Latin numbers for names. Finally, for political reasons, the Romans made a change around 150 B.C. when they started using January as the beginning of their calendar year. Around 700 B.C. the 304 day calendar was expanded to 355 days by adding the months of February and January to the end of the year. Later in 450 B.C., January was moved in front of February. Finally, in 150 B.C. the Romans began to use January as the beginning of the calendar year. This calendar was replaced by the Julian calendar in 46 B.C.

From L. Romanus "of Rome, Roman," from Roma "Rome," of uncertain origin.

Roman numeral system
  راژمان ِ عددهای ِ رومی   
râžmân-e adadhâ-ye Rumi

Fr.: numération romaine   

A → number system in which letters represent numbers, still used occasionally today. The cardinal numbers are expressed by the following seven letters: I (1), V (5), X (10), L (50), C (100), D (500), and M (1,000). If a numeral with smaller value is written on right of greater value then smaller value is added to the greater one. If it is preceded by one of lower value, the smaller numeral is subtracted from the greater. Thus VI = 6 (V + I), but IV = 4 (V - I). Other examples are XC (90), CL (150), XXII (22), XCVII (97), CCCXCV (395). If symbol is repeated then its value is added. The symbols I, X, C and M can be repeated maximum 3 times. A dash line over a numeral multiplies the value by 1,000. For example V- = 5000, X- = 10,000, C- = 100,000, and DLIX- = 559,000.

numeral; → system.


Fr.: sémantique   

1) Of, pertaining to, or arising from the different meanings of words or other signs and symbols.
2) Of or pertaining to → semantics.

From Fr. sémantique, from Gk. semantikos "significant," from semainein "to show, signify, indicate by a sign," from sema "sign."

Cemârik, from cemâr, → meaning, + -ik, → -ic.


Fr.: sémantique   

The study of the → meaning of signs or symbols, as opposed to their formal relations (→ syntactics).

semantic; → -ics.

Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor
  حسگر ِ پیشان ِ موج ِ شک-هارتمان   
hessgar-e pišân-e mowj-e Shack-Hartmann

Fr.: analyseur de front d'onde   

An optical device, a modern version of the → Hartmann test, used for analyzing the wavefront of light. Theses sensors can be used to characterize the performance of optical systems. Moreover, they are increasingly used in real-time applications, such as → adaptive optics to remove the wavefront distortion before creating an image. It consists of a microlens array placed in front of a CCD array. A planar wavefront that is transmitted through a microlens array and imaged on the CCD array will form a regular pattern of bright spots. If, however, the wavefront is distorted, the light imaged on the CCD will consist of some regularly spaced spots mixed with displaced spots and missing spots. This information is used to calculate the shape of the wavefront that was incident on the microlens array.

Named after the German astronomer Johannes Hartmann (1865-1936), who first developed the method, and R. V. Shack, who in the late 1960s replaced the screen by a microlens array; → wavefront; → sensor.


Fr.: homme d'Etat   

A person who is experienced in the art of government or versed in the administration of government affairs (

From state's man, translation of Fr. homme d'Etat; → state; → man.

Stefan-Boltzmann constant
  پایای ِ اشتفان-بولتسمن   
pâyâ-ye Stefan-Boltzmann

Fr.: constante de Stefan-Boltzmann   

The constant of proportionality present in the → Stefan-Boltzmann law. It is equal to σ = 5.670 × 10-8 W m-2 K-4 or 5.670 × 10-5 erg cm-2 s-1 K-4.

Stefan-Boltzmann law; → constant.

Stefan-Boltzmann law
  قانون ِ اشتفان-بولتسمن   
qânun-e Stefan-Boltzmann

Fr.: loi de Stefan-Boltzmann   

The flux of radiation from a blackbody is proportional to the fourth power of its absolute temperature: L = 4πR2σT4. Also known as Stefan's law.

Ludwig Eduard Boltzmann (1844-1906), an Austrian physicist, who made important contributions in the fields of statistical mechanics and statistical thermodynamics and Josef Stefan (1835-1893), an Austrian physicist; → law.

system manager
  گنارگر ِ راژمان   
gonârgar-e râžmân

Fr.: administrateur de système   

A person in charge of the configuration and administration of a multi-user computer system inside a network.

system; → manager.

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