nonlinear instability nâpâydâri-ye nâxatti Fr.: instabilité non-linéaire The instability of a physical or mathematical system that arises from the nonlinear nature of relevant variables and their interactions within the system. → nonlinear; → instability. |
nonlinear system râžmân-e nâxatti Fr.: système non-linéaire A system in which small changes can result in large effects, and large changes in small effects. |
nonlinearity nâxattigi Fr.: non-linéarité The property, condition, or state of being → nonlinear. |
nonrising star setâre-ye hamiše penhân (#) Fr.: A star that is never seen above the horizon from a given position. These stars are located between the celestial pole and a diurnal circle with an angular distance larger than the altitude of the pole. Nonrising, from → non- + rising adj. of → rise; → star. Setâré, → star; hamiše penhân, literally "always hidden," coined by Biruni (A.D. 973-1050) in his at-Tafhim, from hamišé "always" (Mid.Pers. hamêšag "always") + penhân "hidden." |
nonsense jafang (#) Fr.: non sense Word or language having no meaning. → absurd. Jafang "nonsense, futile." |
nonsetting star setâre-ye hamiše peydâ (#) Fr.: A star that is always seen above the horizon from a given position. These stars are located between the celestial pole and a diurnal circle with an angular distance smaller than the altitude of the pole. Same as → circumpolar star. Nonsetting, from → non- + setting adj. of → set; → star. Setâré, → star; hamiše peydâ literally "always visible," coined by Biruni (A.D. 973-1050) in his at-Tafhim, from hamišé "always," → perpetual, + peydâ, → visible. |
nonsingular matrix mâtris-e nâtakin Fr.: matrice non singulière A → square matrix that is not a → singular matrix. |
nonthermal nâgarmâyi Fr.: non thermique See also → non-thermal. |
nonthermal escape goriz-e nâgarmâyi Fr.: échappement non thermique Same as → suprathermal escape. |
nonviscous nâvošksân Fr.: non visqueux |
Nyquist-Shannon sampling theorem farbin-e nemunân-giri-ye Nyquist-Shannon Fr.: théorème d'échantillonnage de Nyquist-Shannon The minimum number of resolution elements required to properly sample a signal, such as a star image, without causing erroneous effects known as aliasing. For electronic imaging, this number is generally taken as 2 pixels across the seeing disk diameter at the half intensity points. Also called → Shannon's sampling theorem and → sampling theorem. Named after Harry Nyquist (1889-1976), a Swedish-born American physicist, who made important contributions to information theory, and Claude Elwood Shannon (1916-2001), an American mathematician and pioneer of information theory; → theorem. |
phenomenon padidé (#) Fr.: phénomène 1) An occurrence, circumstance, or fact, in matter or spirit, which can be perceived
by human senses. → physical phenomenon. From L.L. phÃ¦nomenon, from Gk. phainomenon "that which appears or is seen," from phainesthai "to appear," passive of phainein "to bring to light; to show," from PIE base *bhhā- "to shine;" cf. Skt. bhāati "shines, glitters;" Av. bā- "to shine, appear, seem," bāmya- "light, luminous, bright," bānu- "light, ray;" Mid.Pers. bâm "beam of light, splendor," bâmik "brilliant," bâmdâd "morning, dawn." Padidé, noun from padid "manifest, evident, conspicuous, in sight," variant padidâr, from Mid.Pers. pad didâr "visible," from pad "to, at, for, in," evolved to bé "to; for; in; on; with; by" in Mod.Pers. (O.Pers. paity; Av. paiti "to, toward, in, at;" cf. Skt. práti, Gk. poti) + did past stem of didan "to see, regard, catch sight of, contemplate, experience" (O.Pers. dī- "to see;" Av. dā(y)- "to see," didāti "sees;" cf. Skt. dhī- "to perceive, think, ponder; thought, reflection, meditation," dādhye; Gk. dedorka "have seen"). |
phonon fonon (#) Fr.: phonon A quantum of vibrational or acoustic energy in a crystal lattice, being the analog of a photon of electromagnetic energy. |
physical phenomenon padide-ye fiziki (#) Fr.: phénomène physique A natural → phenomenon that can be explained by → physical laws. → physical; → phenomenon. |
principle of non-contradiction parvaz-e nâpâdguyi Fr.: principe de non-contradiction The third principle of → formal logic introduced in Aristotle's theory of the → syllogism: No statement can be both → true and → false at the same time. Also called → law of non-contradiction. → principle; → non-; → contradiction. |
pycnonuclear reaction vâžireš-e cagâl-hasteyi Fr.: réaction pycnonucléaire A nuclear reaction that takes place at high densities and relatively low temperatures. Pycnonuclear reactions are almost temperature independent and occur even at zero temperature. These reactions are extremely slow at densities typical for normal stars but intensify with increasing density. For example, carbon burns into heavier elements at densities over 10^{10} g cm^{-3}. Pycnonuclear, from pycno- a combining form meaning "dense, thick," from Gk. pyknos "dense, solid" + → nuclear; → reaction. Vâžireš, → reaction; cagâl-hasteyi, from cagâl, → dense, + hasteyi, → nuclear. |
Shannon entropy dargâšt-e Shannon Fr.: entropie de Shannon Claude Elwood Shannon (1916-2001), an American mathematician and pioneer of → information theory; → entropy. |
Shannon's sampling theorem farbin-e nemunân-giri-ye Shannon Fr.: théorème d'échantillonnage de Shannon Same as → sampling theorem. → Shannon entropy; → sampling; → theorem. |
super-canonical star setâre-ye abar-hanjârvâr Fr.: étoile super-canonique A star whose mass exceeds the → canonical upper limit of the stellar → initial mass function (Kroupa et al. 2012, arXiv:1112.3340). |
synonym hamcem Fr.: synonyme Grammar: A word having the same or nearly the same meaning as another in the language. Opposite of → antonym. From L. synonymum, from Gk. synonymon "word having the same sense as another," from synonymos "having the same name as, synonymous," from → syn- "together, same" + onyma, → name. |