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Lorentz Lorentz Fr.: Lorentz Contraction of the full name of Hendrik Antoon Lorentz (1853-1928), a Dutch physicist, who made important contribution to physics. He won (with Pieter Zeeman) the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1902 for his theory of electromagnetic radiation, which, confirmed by findings of Zeeman, gave rise to Albert Einstein's special theory of relativity. |
Lorentz contraction terengeš-e Lorentz Fr.: contraction de Lorentz The decrease in the length of a body moving in the direction of its length as measured by an observer situated in that direction. The shortening factor is [1 - (v/c)^{2}]^{1/2}, where v is the relative velocity and c light speed. → Lorentz; → contraction. |
Lorentz factor karvand-e Lorentz Fr.: facteur de Lorentz In → special relativity, an important parameter which appears in several equations, including → time dilation, → length contraction, and → relativistic mass. It is defined as γ = 1 / [1 - (v/c)^{2}]^{1/2} = dt/dτ, where v is the velocity as observed in the reference frame where time t is measured, τ is the proper time, and c the → velocity of light. Same as Lorentz γ factor. |
Lorentz force niru-ye Lorentz (#) Fr.: force de Lorentz The force acting upon a → charged particle as it moves in a → magnetic field. It is expressed by F = q.v x B, where q is the → electric charge, v is its → velocity, and B the → magnetic induction of the field. This force is perpendicular both to the velocity of the charge and to the magnetic field. The magnitude of the force is F = qvB sinθ, where θ is the angle between the velocity and the magnetic field. This implies that the magnetic force on a stationary charge or a charge moving parallel to the magnetic field is zero. The direction of the force is given by the → right-hand rule. |
Lorentz invariance nâvartâyi-ye Lorentz Fr.: invariance de Lorentz Of a physical law, invariance with respect to a → Lorentz transformation. → Lorentz; → invariance. |
Lorentz resonance bâzâvâyi-ye Lorentz Fr.: résonance de Lorentz A repeated electromagnetic force on an electrically charged ring particle, nudging the particle in the same direction and at the same point in its orbit. Lorentz resonances are especially important for tiny ring particles whose charge-to-mass ratio is high and whose orbit periods are a simple integer fraction of the rotational period of the planet's magnetic field (Ellis et al., 2007, Planetary Ring Systems, Springer). |
Lorentz transformation tarâdis-e Lorentz Fr.: transformation de Lorentz A set of linear equations that expresses the time and space coordinates of one → reference frame in terms of those of another one when one frame moves at a constant velocity with respect to the other. In general, the Lorentz transformation allows a change of the origin of a coordinate system, a rotation around the origin, a reversal of spatial or temporal direction, and a uniform movement along a spatial axis. If the system S'(x',y',z',t') moves at the velocity v with respect to S(x,y,z,t) in the positive direction of the x-axis, the Lorentz transformations will be: x' = γ(x - vt), y' = y, z' = z, t' = γ [t - (vx/c^{2})], where c is the → velocity of light and γ = [1 - (v/c)^{2}]^{-1/2}. For the special case of velocities much less than c, the Lorentz transformation reduces to → Galilean transformation. → Lorentz; → transformation. |
Lorentzian profile farâpâl-e Lorentzi Fr.: profil lorentzien A spectral profile in which the intensity distribution follows a specific mathematical function (Lorentz or Cauchy probability). Compared to the normal or Gaussian profile, Lorentzian has a pointed peak and more important wings. |
Lyman alpha forest jangal-e Lyman-alpha (#) Fr.: forêt Lyman alpha The appearance of many differentially → redshifted→ Lyman alpha lines in → absorption in a → quasar's → spectrum, caused by intervening → hydrogen clouds along our → line of sight to the quasar. |
mean value theorem farbin-e arzeš-e miyângin Fr.: théorème des accroissements finis 1) If f(x) is a continuous function on the interval from a to b, then: |
Moreton wave mowj-e Moreton Fr.: onde de Moreton A large-scale → shock wave observed in Hα on the Sun's → chromosphere that is generated by the impact of a → solar flare. Moreton waves expand outward at about 1,000 km/s, and may travel for several hundred thousand kilometers. They are accompanied by meter-wave radio bursts. Named after the American astronomer Gail E. Moreton (1960, A.J. 65, 494); → wave. |
Nernst heat theorem farbin-e garmâ-ye Nernst Fr.: théorème de Nernst The entropy change for chemical reactions involving crystalline solid is zero at the absolute zero of temperature. Also known as the third law of thermodynamics. → Nernst effect; → heat; → theorem. |
Newton's shell theorem farbin-e puste-ye Newton Fr.: théorème de Newton In classical mechanics, an analytical method applied to a material sphere to determine the gravitational field at a point outside or inside the sphere. Newton's shell theorem states that: 1) The gravitational field outside a uniform spherical shell (i.e. a hollow ball) is the same as if the entire mass of the shell is concentrated at the center of the sphere. 2) The gravitational field inside the spherical shell is zero, regardless of the location within the shell. 3) Inside a solid sphere of constant density, the gravitational force varies linearly with distance from the center, being zero at the center of mass. For the relativistic generalization of this theorem, see → Birkhoff's theorem. |
no hair theorem farbin-e bimu-yi, ~ kacali Fr.: théorème de calvitie There are only three parameters that can be applied by an outside observer relating to a → black hole: → mass, → electric charge, and → angular momentum. The collapse of a star into a black hole wipes out all other details of its structure, and the observer can never discover any other properties of the star which formed the black hole. In other words, none of its characteristics leave any trace outside the black hole, and that is what is meant by "hair." No, M.E., from O.E. na "never, no," cognate with Pers. na, nâ, → non-; → hair; → theorem. Farbin, → theorem;
bimuyi, noun from bimu "without hair," from bi- "without"
(→ in-) + mu, → hair. |
Noether's theorem farbin-e Noether Fr.: théorème de Noether A → symmetry in a physical system leads to a → conserved quantity. For example, symmetry under → translation corresponds to conservation of → momentum, symmetry under → rotation to conservation of → angular momentum, and symmetry in → time to conservation of → energy. The Noether symmetry theorem is a fundamental tool of modern theoretical physics and the calculus of variations, allowing to derive conserved quantities from the existence of variational symmetries. Named in honor of the German-American woman mathematician Amalie Emmy Noether (1182-1935), who published the theorem in 1918 ("Invariante Variationsprobleme," Nachr. D. König. Gesellsch. D. Wiss. Zu Göttingen, Math-phys. Klasse 1918: 235-257). |
Nyquist-Shannon sampling theorem farbin-e nemunân-giri-ye Nyquist-Shannon Fr.: théorème d'échantillonnage de Nyquist-Shannon The minimum number of resolution elements required to properly sample a signal, such as a star image, without causing erroneous effects known as aliasing. For electronic imaging, this number is generally taken as 2 pixels across the seeing disk diameter at the half intensity points. Also called → Shannon's sampling theorem and → sampling theorem. Named after Harry Nyquist (1889-1976), a Swedish-born American physicist, who made important contributions to information theory, and Claude Elwood Shannon (1916-2001), an American mathematician and pioneer of information theory; → theorem. |
ore kâné (#) Fr.: minerai A natural deposit containing a mineral of an element to be extracted. Ore, merger of M.E. ore, O.E. ora "ore, unworked metal" and M.E. or(e) "ore, metal," O.E. ar "brass, copper, bronze" (cf. O.N. eir "brass, copper;" Ger. ehern "brazen;" Erz "oar;" Goth. aiz "bronze;" O.H.G. ēr "ore"), from PIE *aus- "gold;" cf. Mod/Mid..Pers. âhan "iron;" Av. aiianhaēna- "made of metal," from aiiah- "metal;" Skt. áyas- "iron, metal;" L. aes "brass" Kâné, from kân "mine," from kandan "to dig" (Mid.Pers. kandan "to dig;" O.Pers. kan- "to dig," akaniya- "it was dug;" Av. kan- "to dig," uskən- "to dig out" (→ ex- for prefix us-); cf. Skt. khan- "to dig," khanati "he digs"). |
outer core maqze-ye biruni Fr.: noyau externe The upper zone of the → Earth's core, just below the → mantle, extending from a depth of about 2900 km to 5100 km. It is presumed to be → liquid because it sharply reduces → compressional wave velocities and does not transmit → shear waves. Its density is from 9 to 11 g/cm^{3}. The → temperature ranges from 4400 °C in the outer areas to 6100 °C near the → inner core. Since shear waves do not propagate through a fluid, the Earth's outer core is considered to be liquid because the shear wave velocity is zero. Convection motion within the outer core, along with the rotation of the Earth creates an effect that maintains the Earth's → magnetic field. |
parallel axis theorem farbin-e âsehâ-ye parâsu Fr.: théorème des axes parallèles The → moment of inertia of a body about any given axis is the moment of inertia about a parallel axis through the center of mass, plus the moment of inertia about the given axis if the mass were located at the center of mass. same as → Steiner's theorem. |
Parseval's theorem farbin-e Parseval Fr.: théorème de Parseval A theorem relating the → Fourier coefficients to the function that they describe. It states that: (1/L) ∫ |f(x)|^{2}dx (integrated from x_{0} to x_{0} + L) = (a_{0}/2)^{2} + (1/2) Σ (a_{r}^{2} + b_{r}^{2}) (summed from r = 1 to ∞). In other words, the sum of the moduli squared of the complex Fourier coefficients is equal to the average value of |f(x)|^{2} over one period. Named after Marc-Antoine Parseval (1755-1836), French mathematician; → theorem. |
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