A specific type of → photoluminescence that continues for an appreciable time after the stimulating process has ceased. Phosphorescence is due to the existence of metastable → excited states of the atoms and molecules from which a change to the normal state is hindered for some reason or other. The change from the → metastable metastable state to the normal one becomes possible only as a result of some additional excitation, for example the application of heat.
1) fosfor (#); 2) rujâ, setâre-ye bâmdâdi (#)
1) Nonmetallic chemical element; symbol P. → Atomic number 15;
→ atomic weight 30.97376;
→ melting point 44.1Â°C;
→ boiling point about 280Â°C. It
was discovered by the German merchant Hennig Brand in 1669.
L. Phosphorus "morning star," from Gk. Phosphoros "morning star," literally "light bearing," from phos "light" + phoros "bearer," from pherein "to carry," cognate with Pers. bordan "to carry, lead" (→ periphery). The chemical element is such called because of its white color.
1) Fosfor, loan from Fr.
The supersymmetric partner of the → photon.
From phot, from → photon + -ino supersymmetric particle suffix.
šid- (#), nur- (#)
From Gk. combining form of phos (genitive photos).
Šid- "light, sunlight," from Mid.Pers. šÃªt "shining, radiant, bright;"
Av. xšaēta- "shining, brilliant, splendid, excellent."
A situation in which all of the energy of a photon is transferred to an atom, molecule, or nucleus.
Electrode capable of releasing electrons when illuminated.
The study of the chemical and physical changes occurring when a molecule or atom absorbs photons of light.
Th desorption of surface substances by ultraviolet radiation.
The process by which atomic nuclei are broken apart into their constituent protons and neutrons by the impact of high energy gamma photons. Photodisintegration takes place during the core collapse phase of a → Type II supernova explosion.
photodissociation region (PDR)
nâhiye-ye šid-vâhazeš, ~ nur-vâhazeš
Fr.: région de photodissociation
A neutral region at the boundary of a → molecular cloud created by the penetration of → far ultraviolet (FUV) radiation from associated stars. The FUV radiation (6 eV ≤ hν ≤ 13.6 eV) dissociates the molecules and heats the gas and dust. A warm, atomic → H I region is thus created and the chemistry and thermal balance of the region are determined by the penetrating FUV photons. The progressive absorption of FUV photons leads to the occurrence of transitions between atomic and molecular phases, such as H I/H2 and C II/C I/CO transitions. By extension, any neutral region where the physics is controlled by FUV photons can be called a PDR, as it is the case for → diffuse interstellar clouds or the edge of → circumstellar disks. The PDR concept was first studied by A. G. G. M. Tielens and D. Hollenbach (1985, ApJ 291, 722).
Pertaining to electronic or other electrical effects that are due to the action of electromagnetic radiation, especially visible light.
Fr.: courant photoélectrique
oskar-e šid-barqi, ~ nur-barqi
Fr.: effet photoélectrique
The process of release of electrically charged particles (usually → electrons) as a result of irradiation of matter by light or other → electromagnetic radiation. The classical electromagnetic theory was unable to account for the following characteristics of the phenomenon. Light below a certain threshold frequency, no matter how intense, will not cause any electrons to be emitted. Light above that frequency, even if it is not very intense, will always cause electrons to be ejected. The electrons are ejected after some nanoseconds, independently of the light intensity. The maximum kinetic energy of the emitted electrons is a function of the frequency and does not dependent on the intensity of the incident light. The classical theory could not explain how a train of light waves spread out over a large number of atoms could, in a very short time interval, concentrate enough energy to knock a single electron out of the metal. In 1905, based on Planck's idea of → quanta, Einstein proposed that light consisted of quanta (later called → photons); that a given source could emit and absorb radiant energy only in units which are all exactly equal to the radiation frequency multiplied by a constant (→ Planck's constant); and that a photon with a frequency over a certain threshold would have sufficient energy to eject a single electron. His photoelectric equation is descibed as (1/2)mu2 = hν - A, where m is the electron mass, u is the electron velocity, h is Planck's constant, ν is the frequency, and A the → work function, which represents the amount of work needed by electrons to get free of the surface. See also → photoelectron, → photoelectric current, → external photoelectric effect, → internal photoelectric effect.
Fr.: chauffage photoÃ©lectrique
A heating process occurring in → diffuse molecular clouds which is believed to be the main heating mechanism in cool → H I regions. Far-ultraviolet (FUV) photons, in the energy range 6 eV <hν < 13.6 eV, expel electrons from → interstellar dust grains and the excess → kinetic energy of the electrons is converted into gas → thermal energy through → collisions. The high energy limit corresponds to the cut-off in the → far-ultraviolet (FUV) radiation field caused by the hydrogen absorption (hν = 13.6 eV), while the low energy limit corresponds to the energy needed to free electrons from the grains (hν ~ 6 eV). In the cold neutral medium (Tkin≥ 200 K) photoelectric heating accounts for most of the heating, the → X-ray and → cosmic ray heating rates (→ cosmic-ray ionization) being more than an order of magnitude smaller. In a relatively dense neutral medium (nH≥ 100 cm-3), where a significant fraction of carbon is in the neutral form, carbon ionization becomes an important heating source, but it is still not comparable to the photoelectric effect. The heating rate cannot be directly measured, but it can be estimated through observations of the [C II] line emission, since this is believed to be the main → coolant in regions where the photoelectric heating is dominant (See, e.g., Juvela et al., 2003, arXiv:astro-ph/0302365).
borz-e šidsanjik, ~ nursanjik
Fr.: magnitude photoélectrique
The magnitude of an object as measured with a photoelectric photometer.
Fr.: photométrie photoélectrique
A photometry in which the magnitudes are obtained using a photoelectric photometer.
An electron emitted from an atom or molecule by an incident photon in the → photoelectric effect.
Fr.: effet photoémissif