tarz-e fešÃ¢r, mod-e ~
Fr.: mode pression
Same as → p mode
pressure scale height
bolandi-ye marpel-e fešâr
Fr.: hauteur d'échelle de pression
A basic ingredient of the → mixing length theory that scales with the → mixing length. It is defined by the relation: HP = -dr/dln P = -Pdr/dP , where r is the height and P the pressure. See also → scale height.
Fr.: pression de radiation
The → momentum carried by → photons to a surface exposed to → electromagnetic radiation. Stellar radiation pressure on big and massive objects is insignificant, but it has considerable effects on → gas and → dust particles. Radiation pressure is particularly important for → massive stars. See, for example, → Eddington limit, → radiation-driven wind , and → radiation-driven implosion. The → solar radiation pressure is also at the origin of various physical phenomena, e.g. → gas tails in → comets and → Poynting-Robertson effect.
Fr.: pression dynamique
The pressure exerted on a body moving through a → fluid medium. For example, a → meteor traveling through the Earth's atmosphere produces a → shock wave generated by the extremely rapid → compression of air in front of the → meteoroid. It is primarily this ram pressure (rather than → friction) that heats the air which in turn heats the meteoroid as it flows around the meteoroid. The ram pressure increases with → velocity according to the relation P = (1/2)ρv2, where ρ is the density of the medium and v the relative velocity between the body and the medium. Similarly, → ram pressure stripping produces → jellyfish galaxies. Same as → dynamic pressure.
ram pressure stripping
loxtâneš bâ fešâr-e qucvâr
Fr.: balayage par la pression dynamique
A process proposed to explain the observed absence of gas-rich galaxies in → galaxy clusters whereby a galaxy loses its gas when it falls into a cluster. There is a tremendous amount of hot (~ 107 K) and tenuous (~ 10-4 cm-3) gas (several 1013 → solar masses) in the → intracluster medium (ICM). Ram pressure stripping was first proposed by Gunn & Gott (1972) who noted that galaxies falling into clusters feel an ICM wind. If this wind can overcome the → gravitational attraction between the stellar and gas disks, then the gas disk will be blown away. The mapping of the gas content of spiral galaxies in the → Virgo cluster showed that the → neutral hydrogen (H I) disks of cluster spiral galaxies are disturbed and considerably reduced. Their molecular gas, more bound to the galaxy, is less perturbed, but still may be swept out in case of very strong ram pressure. These observational results indicate that the gas removal due to the rapid motion of the galaxy within the intracluster medium is responsible for the H I deficiency and the disturbed gas disks of the cluster spirals (e.g., J. A. Hester, 2006, ApJ 647:910).
Fr.: dépression solaire
The → angle between the → sea horizon, the → center of → Earth, and the center of the → solar disk.
→ solar; → depression.
solar radiation pressure
fešâr-e tâbeš xoršid (#)
Fr.: pression du rayonnement solaire
The → radiation pressure of solar photons, which pushes a comet's dust outward to form a → dust tail.
Fr.: pression de son
The periodic fluctuation above and below atmospheric pressure created by an oscillating body which provides the → sound power. Instantaneous sound pressure is the peak value of air pressure.
Fr.: pression de stagnation
The sum of → static pressure and → dynamic pressure in the → Bernoulli equation.
→ stagnation; → pressure.
standard temperature and pressure (STP)
damâ o fešâr-e estândé
Fr.: conditions normales de température et de pression
1) The most commonly used definition is temperature of 273.15 K (0 °C) and
pressure of 1 → atmosphere.
→ standard; → temperature; → pressure.
Fr.: pression statique
In → fluid mechanics, the → pressure felt by an object suspended in a → fluid and moving with it. This pressure is called static because the object is not moving relative to the fluid. See also → dynamic pressure.
1) To put down by authority or force.
L. suppressus, p.p. of supprimere "to press down, stop, stifle," from → sub- "down, under" + premere "to press, push against," → express.
Nehâvidan, from ne-, → ni- "down, below," + hâvidan "to press," → express.
The act of suppressing; the state of being suppressed. → Compton suppression, → zero suppression.
fešâr-e garmâyi (#)
Fr.: pression thermale
The ordinary pressure in a gas that is due to motions of particles and can be attributed to the object's → temperature.
Fr.: pression totale
The sum of → static pressure, → dynamic pressure, and → hydrostatic pressure in the → Bernoulli equation.
Fr.: pression de vapeur
The equilibrium pressure of a vapor above its condensed phases (liquid or solid). In other words, the pressure of the vapor resulting from evaporation of a liquid (or solid) above a sample of the liquid (or solid) in a closed container. The vapor pressure varies with the temperature. As the temperature increases its the vapor pressure also increases, and conversely. The temperature at which the vapor pressure is equal to the atmospheric pressure is called the → boiling point. For example, at 20 °C, water would boil at a pressure of about 0.023 atm, or about a fortieth of atmospheric pressure.
Fr.: pression dynamique
Fr.: dépression de Wilson
The depression on the → Sun's → photosphere associated with → sunspots and involving the → Wilson effect. The measured depression values vary between about 700 and 2,000 km.
→ Wilson effect; → depression.
Fr.: suppression de zéro
The removal of non-significant zeroes from a number. For example, replacing 531.2300 by 531.23.
→ zero; → suppression.