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Maxwell's demon pari-ye Maxwell Fr.: démon de Maxwell A → thought experiment meant to raise questions about the possibility of violating the → second law of thermodynamics. A wall separates two compartments filled with gas. A little "demon" sits by a tiny trap door in the wall. He is able to sort hot (faster) molecules from cold molecules without expending energy, thus bringing about a general decrease in → entropy and violating the second law of thermodynamics. The → paradox is explained by the fact that such a demon would still need to use energy to observe and sort the molecules. Thus the total entropy of the system still increases. Named after James Clerk Maxwell (→ maxwell), who first thought of this experiment; → demon. |
Maxwell's equations hamugešhâ-ye Maxwell Fr.: équations de Maxwell A set of four fundamental equations that describe the electric and
magnetic fields arising from varying electric charges and magnetic fields,
electric currents, charge distributions,
and how those fields change in time. In their vector differential form,
these equations are: → maxwell. It should be emphasized that the equations originally published by James Clerk Maxwell in 1873 (in A Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism) were 20 in number, had 20 variables, and were in scalar form. The German physicist Heinrich Rudolf Hertz (1857-1894) reduced them to 12 scalar equations (1884). It was the English mathematician/physicist Oliver Heaviside (1850-1925) who expressed Maxwell's equations in vector form using the notations of → gradient, → divergence, and → curl of a vector, thus simplifying them to the present 4 equations (1886). Before Einstein these equations were known as Maxwell-Heaviside-Hertz equations, Einstein (1940) popularized the name "Maxwell's Equations;" → equation. |
Maxwell's rule razan-e Maxwell Fr.: règle de Maxwell Every part of a deformable electric circuit tends to move in such a direction as to enclose the maximum magnetic flux. |
Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution vibâžš-e Maxwell-Boltzmann Fr.: distribution de Maxwell-Boltzmann The distribution law for kinetic energies (or, equivalently, speeds) of molecules of an ideal gas in equilibrium at a given temperature. → maxwell; → Boltzmann's constant; → distribution. |
Maya calendar gâhšomâr-e Mâyâ Fr.: calendrier Maya A complex calendar created by the ancient central American Mayas which uses three different dating systems in parallel: Long Count, Tzolkin, and Haab. Only Haab has a direct relationship with the length of the year. It is a solar → vague year consisting of 18 months of 20 days each, and an additional period of 5 → epagomenal days. Tzolkin is a calendar of 13 x 20 = 260 days running within Haab and is used for ritual purposes. A date is usually described by specifying its position in both the Tzolkin and Haab calendars. The least common multiple of the two calendars, called the Calendar Round, has 18,980 days, representing a cycle of 73 sacred years, or 52 vague years. The Long Count is the number of days since the start of the Maya era. There is disagreement about the beginning date of the Long Count. Most authorities agree, however, that the Long Count started in 3114 B.C., with several possible dates. Maya, proper name; → calendar. |
Möbius band bând-e Möbius Fr.: ruban de Möbius A surface with only one side, made by putting a simple twist in a long, rectangular strip of paper, then pasting the ends together. After the German astronomer and geometer August Ferdinand Möbius (1790-1868); → band. |
Mössbauer effect oskar-e Mössbauer Fr.: effet Mössbauer The resonant and recoil-free emission and absorption of gamma rays by atoms bound in a solid form. Named after Rudolf Mößbauer (1929-), a German physicist who studied gamma rays from nuclear transitions, and discovered this phenomenon in 1957; → effect. |
mean 1) miyângin (#); 2) cemârdan Fr.: 1) moyenne; 2) signifier, vouloir dire 1a) General: A quantity having a value intermediate between the values of other
quantities; an average. 1) From O.Fr. meien, from L. medianus "of or that is in the middle,"
→ median. 1) Miyângin "the middle; middle-sized; the middle pearl in a string," from
miyân, → middle, + -gin a suffix forming adjectives of
possession. |
mean anomaly nâsâni-ye miyângin Fr.: anomalie moyenne The angle between the periapsis of an orbit and the position of a hypothetical body that orbits in the same period as the real one but at a constant mean angular velocity. |
mean catalog place jâ-ye miyângin-e kâtâlogi Fr.: position catalogue moyenne That point on the → celestial sphere at which an object would be seen from the solar system → barycenter affected by the → e-terms → aberration. |
mean daily motion jenbeš-e ruzâne-ye miyângin (#) Fr.: mouvement diurne moyen The average movement of a body along its orbit in one day, usually expressed in degrees. |
mean element bonpâr-e miyângin Fr.: élément moyen An element of an adopted reference orbit that approximates the actual, perturbed orbit. Mean elements may serve as the basis for calculating perturbations. |
mean equator hamugâr-e miyângin Fr.: équateur moyen The orientation the Earth's equator would have if the nutation was subtracted. |
mean equinox hamugân-e miyângin Fr.: équinoxe moyen A fictitious equinox whose position is that of the vernal equinox at a particular epoch with the effect of nutation removed. |
mean free path puyeš-e âzâd-e miyângin (#) Fr.: libre parcours moyen The mean distance which a particle moves between two successive collisions with other particles of the medium. Mean free path is inversely proportional to the number of particles per cm^{3} (n), and the collision → cross section (σ). In the case of a gas with molecules having a diameter of d, the cross section is equal to the area of a circle of radius d, i.e. σ = πd^{2}, and the mean free path is given by: l = 1/(nσ). Taking into account the relative velocity distribution of the colliding molecules, l = 1/(√2 . nσ). For a gas at one atmosphere pressure and room temperature, the average distance between molecules is roughly 3.5 × 10^{-7} cm, that is some 35 times the diameter of a molecule. Taking the gas density n = 2.4 × 10^{14} molecules cm^{-3}, and a typical diameter d = 2 × 10^{-8} cm for a molecule, the mean free path is 3.3 × 10^{-5} cm. This means that the average distance between collisions is about 95 times the average distance between molecules. Puyeš, verbal noun of puyidan "to run, trot; wander," from Mid.Pers. pôy-, pwd- "to run;" cf. Gk. speudein "to hasten;" Lith. spudinti; âzâd, → free; miyângin, → mean. |
mean life zist-e miyângin Fr.: vie moyenne The average amount of time an unstable radioisotope exists before it decays, It is equal to 1.44 times the half-life. |
mean molecular weight vazn-e molekuli-ye miyângin (#) Fr.: poids moléculaire moyen The total atomic or molecular weight divided by the total number of particles. For instance, the mean molecular weight of a plasma of pure ionized ^{4}He would be 4 (the atomic mass number) divided by 3, the total number of particles (1 nucleus plus 2 electrons), i.e. 4/3. |
mean moon mâh-e miyângin (#) Fr.: lune moyenne A fictitious Moon that has the same average motion as the true Moon but that is not subject to any gravitational perturbations by other bodies. |
mean motion jonbeš-e miyângin (#) Fr.: mouvement moyen The average angular velocity of a satellite in an elliptical orbit. |
mean parallax didgašt-e miyângin Fr.: parallaxe moyenne The parallax, derived by means of statistical studies of brightness and motions, for a large group of stars whose individual parallaxes cannot be measured. |
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