# An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and AstrophysicsEnglish-French-Persian

## فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

### M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 1381
 significance   نشاناری   nešânâriFr.: significativité   1) The state or quality of being significant; → meaning; importance. 2) Statistics: An estimated measure of the degree to which a result is not merely a matter of chance. See also → significance level, → significance testing.From L. significantia "meaning, force, energy," from significans, present participle of significare, → signify.Nešânâri, noun from nešânâr, → significant. significance level   تراز ِ نشاناری   tarâz-e nešânâriFr.: niveau de significativité   The level of → Type I error which one is willing to risk in a → test of significance. Also called level of significance.→ significance; → level. significance testing   آزمون ِ نشاناری   âzmun-e nešanâriFr.: test de significativité   Statistics: A procedure that is used to decide whether to accept or reject the → null hypothesis or to determine whether observed samples differ significantly from expected results. Also called → test of significance and → rule of decision.→ significance; → test. significant   نشانار   nešânârFr.: significatif   1) Having a special or suggestive → meaning. 2) Statistics: Of or pertaining to a result that is not plausible to occur by chance.From L. significant-, stem of significans, from significare, "to → signify."Nešânâr, from nešân, → sign, + âr short form of âvar present stem of âvardan "to bring, adduce, cause, produce." significant digit   رقم ِ نشانار   raqam-e nešânârFr.: chiffre significatif   The number of digits used to express a measured or calculated quantity. Rules for deciding the number of significant digits: The leftmost digit which is not a zero is the most significant digit. If the number does not have a decimal point, the rightmost digit which is not a zero is the least significant digit. If the number does have a decimal point, the rightmost significant digit is the least significant digit, even if it's a zero. Every digit between the least and most significant digits should be counted as a significant digit.→ significant; → digit. signification   نشانارش   nešânârešFr.: signification   1) Something that is signified, → meaning, sense. 2) The act of signifying. → significance, → significant, → level of significance.Verbal noun of → signify. signify   نشاناردن   nešânârdanFr.: signifier   To make known; to be a sign of; to → mean. → significance, → significant, → signification.M.E. signifien, from O.Fr. signifier, from L. significare "to make a sign, indicate, mention, denote."Nešânâridan, from nešânâr, → significant, + -dan suffix of infinitives. silence   بیدنگی   bidengi (#)Fr.: silence   1) Absence of sound or noise. 2) The state or fact of being silent.Noun from → silent. silent   بیدنگ   bideng (#)Fr.: silencieux   1) Making no sound; quiet; still. 2) Refraining from speech.From L. silentem (nominative silens) "still, calm, quiet," p.p. of silere "to be quiet or still," of unknown origin.Bideng, from Kurd. (Kurmanji) bêdeng, bêdêng, Kurd. (Sorani) bedang, from bi- "without," → a-, + deng "sound, voice," variants dong, dang, bâng, → Big Bang. silex   سیلکس، آتشزنه، چخماق   sileks (#), âtašzané (#), caxmâq (#)Fr.: silex   A type of heat-resistant glass, especially in the form of flint or → quartz.L. silex "hard stone, flint." Âtašzané "that used for kindling, ignitor," from âtaš, → fire, + zadan "to strike," → beat + -é instrument suffix. Caxmâq loan from Turkish. silhouette disk   گرده‌ی ِ سیه‌رخ، دیسک ِ ~   gerde-ye siyah-rox, disk-e ~Fr.: disque silhouette   A dark disk seen in absorption against the bright nebular background. → proplyd.From Fr. silhouette, in allusion to Étienne de Silhouette (1709-67), Fr. controller general of finances in 1759; perhaps from his ephemeral tenure; → disk.Gerdé, → disk; siyah-rox, from siyah, → black, + rox, variant of ru(y) "face, surface; aspect; appearance," (Mid.Pers. rôy, rôdh "face;" Av. raoδa- "growth," in plural form "appearance," from raod- "to grow, sprout, shoot;" cf. Skt. róha- "rising, height"). silica   سیلیس   silis (#)Fr.: silice   A widely found mineral of silicon dioxide SiO2, which is used as an ore of → silicon. It is a hard, white, or colorless crystalline compound with a high melting point, occurring abundantly as quartz, sand, flint, rock crystal, etc.From L. silic- stem of → silex "hard stone, flint, boulder." silicate   سیلیکات   silikât (#)Fr.: silicate   A common rock-forming → mineral belonging to a group formed from → silicon and → oxygen combined with various elements and classified by their crystalline structures. SiO4 in the shape of a tetrahedron is the main component of the group. It has been estimated that about 95% of the Earth's crust is made up of silicate minerals. A salt of → silicic acid.From → silica + → -ate. silicic   سیلیسیک   silisik (#)Fr.: silicique   1) Containing → silicon. 2) Of or pertaining to → silica or acids derived from it.From silic-, from → silic + → -ic. silicic acid   اسید سیلیسیک   asid silisik (#)Fr.: acide silicique   A general name for a family of chemical compounds containing the element silicon attached to oxide and hydroxyl groups.→ silicic; → acid. silicon   سیلیسیوم   silisiom (#)Fr.: silicium   A non-metallic chemical element; symbol Si. Atomic number 14; atomic weight 28.0855; melting point 1,410°C; boiling point 2,355°C; specific gravity 2.33 at 25°C. It occurs in a combined state in minerals and rocks and constituting more than one fourth of the earth's crust.From silic(a), from L. silex (genitive silicis) "flint, pebble" + -on, as in carbon and boron.Silisiom, from Fr. silicium, from silic(a), as above, + -ium as in magnesium, barium. silicon burning   سوزش ِ سیلیسیوم   suzeš-e silisiomFr.: combustion du silicium   The → nucleosynthetic process taking place in the interior of → massive stars whereby → silicon is transmuted into iron, nickel, and neighboring nuclei collectively called the → iron peak elements.→ silicon; → burning. silk   ابریشم   abrišam (#)Fr.: soie   The soft, lustrous fiber obtained as a filament from the cocoon of the silkworm (Dictionary.com).M.E., from O.E. seolc, sioluc, from L. sericum "silk garment, silk," from neuter of sericus "silken," from Gk. serikos, from Seres, an eastern Asian people, probably the Chinese (cf. Chinese si "silk", Manchurian sirghe, Mongolian sirkek).Abrišam "silk," from Mid.Pers. abrešom "silk," ultimately from Proto-Ir. *au-uris-, from *uris- "to turn, spin;" cf. rešté "thread, line, file," reštan, ristan, "to spin;" Mid.Pers. 'rws- "to turn to;" Av. uruuaēs- "to twist, turn." Silk damping   میرایی ِ سیلک   mirâyi-ye SilkFr.: amortissement de Silk   The smoothing of primordial → density fluctuations at high frequencies caused by photon → diffusion. Before the → decoupling era, photons and → baryons were tightly coupled to each other by → Compton scattering. However, the transition to a transparent → Universe was not instantaneous. As the → opacity of the Universe dropped, the photons started diffusing away from the positions they had while opaque, hence undergoing a → random walk. Since the → acoustic waves in the decoupling era were driven by photon pressure, the photon diffusion also led to damping of the → baryon acoustic oscillations. Silk damping suppresses all perturbations with masses smaller than about 1013 Msun. The implication for a theory of → structure formation is that individual galaxies must have formed in a → top-down structure formation mechanism, i.e. by the fragmentation of larger objects. However, in theories of structure formation which include → non-baryonic dark matter galaxies can form from smaller objects in a → bottom-up scenario.Joseph Silk (1942-); → damping. silver   نقره   noqré (#)Fr.: argent   A metallic → chemical element; symbol Ag (L. argentum). → Atomic number 47; → atomic weight 107.8682; → melting point 961.93°C; → boiling point 2,212°C; → specific gravity 10.5 at 20°C. Pure silver is nearly white, lustrous, soft, very ductile, malleable, and an excellent conductor of heat and electricity. Silver is generated in stars through a special rapid process of → neutron captures. This process defers from the main → r-process, the main and weak → s-process, and charged particle freeze-outs. In other words, during a → supernova explosion, silver is formed in a different → fusion process from the one that forms → gold (Hansen et al., 2012, A&A 545, A31).M.E. silver(e), selver(e), selfer; O.E. seolfor "silver;" cf. O.S. silvbar, O.N. silfr, M.Du. silver, Du. zilver, O.H.G. sillabar, Ger. silber, Goth. silubr, akin to Serbo-Croatian srebro, Rus. serebo, Lith. sidabras "silver." L. argentum "silver, white money," from PIE *arg-ent-, from PIE *arg- "to be bright, shine;" cf. Av. ərəzata- "silver," auruša- "white" (Mid.Pers. arus "white, bright"); O.Pers. ardata- "silver;" Mod.Pers. arziz "silvery metal tin;" Skt. arjuna- "white, shining," rajata- "silver;" Gk. argos "white," arguron "silver;" Arm. arcat; Hittite harki- "white."Noqré from Sogdian nâkartak "uncoined (silver)," literally "undone," from nâ- negation prefix "not, no" (Mid.Pers. ne, O.Pers. naiy, Av. na-, (particle of negation noit), Skt. na-, (ned), Gk. né- "not," L. ne-, in-, un-, PIE *ne-) + kartak "done," p.p. of kardan "to do, to make;" kâr "work," variant kar (Mid.Pers. kardan; O.Pers./Av. kar- "to do, make, build;" Av. kərənaoiti "he makes;" cf. Skt. kr- "to do, to make," krnoti "he makes, he does," karoti "he makes, he does," karma "act, deed;" PIE base kwer- "to do, to make"), Sogdian nâktênê "of silver." Note that another word in Pers. for silver is sim, which has a semantic form comparable to that of noqré, since it derives from Mid.Pers. asêm, from Gk. asemon "without mark, uncoined, shapeless, formless," from argurion asemon "uncoined money."