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line-driven wind bâd-e xattzâd Fr.: vent induit par raie Same as → radiation-driven wind. |
linea xaš Fr.: ligne Any of a countless number of dark streaks visible on → Europa's surface that crisscross the whole → Galilean satellite. They are up to 1,000 km long, 20 km wide, and 1 km deep, but only hundred of meters high. In many cases, the ridges are double, often with dark outer edges and a central band. Images show that on each side of the lines, the edges have moved relative to each other. According to the most likely hypothesis, lineae result from eruptions of warm water, in a scenario similar to the present day mid- oceanic ridges on Earth. From L. linea, → line. Xaš, → streak. |
linear xatti (#) Fr.: linéaire Confined to first-degree algebraic terms in the relevant variables. Adj. of → line. |
linear acceleration šetâb-e xatti Fr.: accélération linéaire The rate of change of the → linear velocity with time. It is defined by the expression Δv/Δt and is equal to the → first derivative of the → linear velocity. → linear; → acceleration. |
linear approximation nazdineš-e xatti Fr.: approximation linéaire Taking the first term in the Taylor series as an approximation to a mathematical function at a given point. → first approximation. → linear; → approximation. |
linear astrolabe ostorlâb-e xatti Fr.: astrolabe linéaire A version of → planispheric astrolabe in which the → celestial sphere and the various circles of altitude and declination are projected on to a line represented by a staff. The staff is equivalent to the meridian line and contains markings to indicate the centers of these circles and their intersections with the meridian. By attaching three ropes to the appropriate points on the staff to act as radii, the circles and their intersections can be reconstructed. One of the ropes was attached to a plumb line. A scale giving chord lengths in the meridian circle extended the linear astrolabe's range of applications. It was invented by the Iranian mathematician and astronomer Sharafeddin Tusi (c1135-1213), but no early example has survived. Same as → Sharafeddin's staff and Tusi's staff. |
linear correlation hambâzâneš-e xatti Fr.: corrélation linéaire A measure of how well data points fit a straight line. When all the points fall on the line it is called a perfect correlation. When the points are scattered all over the graph there is no correlation. → linear; → correlation. |
linear diameter tarâmun-e xatti Fr.: diamètre linéaire The real physical diameter, as opposed to angular diameter. |
linear differential equation hamugeš-e degarsâne-yi-ye xatti Fr.: équation différentielle linéaire An equation in which the → dependent variable y
and all its differential coefficients occur only
in the first degree. A linear differential equation of → order
order n has the form: → linear; → differential; → equation. |
linear electric quadrupole cahârqotbe-ye barqi-ye xatti Fr.: quadrupôle électrique linéaire A system of three charges +q, -2q, and +q, arranged along a line to form an axial quadrupole. The → electric potential V due to a linear quadrupole varies as 1/r^{3}, whereas the → electric intensity E varies as 1/r^{4}. → linear; → electric; → quadrupole. |
linear equation hamugeš-e xatti Fr.: équation linéaire An equation composed of first degree variables and representing a straight line. |
linear function karyâ-ye xatti Fr.: fonction linéaire A function expressed by a → first degree equation that can be graphically represented in the → Cartesian coordinate plane by a → straight line. |
linear instability nâpâydâri-ye xatti (#) Fr.: instabilité linéaire An instability that can be described (to first-order accuracy) by linear (or tangent linear) equations. → linear; → instability. |
linear momentum jonbâak-e xatti Fr.: quantité de mouvement linéaire The product of an object's → mass and → velocity. It is a → vector and points in the same direction as the velocity vector. Linear momentum is distinguished from → angular momentum. When there is no opportunity for confusion, usually the term momentum is used instead of linear momentum. |
linear perturbation theory negare-ye partureš-e xatti Fr.: théorie de perturbation linéaire Assumption that the variations in the plasma parameters, due to the presence of waves, are small (to the first order) as compared to the undisturbed parameters. This makes it possible to linearize equations by dropping out second order (and higher) nonlinear terms. → linear; → perturbation; → theory. |
linear polarization qotbeš-e xatti (#) Fr.: polarisation linéaire Of an electromagnetic radiation, a → polarization in which the electric vibrations are confined to one plane along the direction of propagation. Also called → plane polarization. See also → circular polarization. → linear; → polarization. |
linear programming barnâme-sâzi-ye xatti (#) Fr.: programmation linéaire A procedure for finding the maximum or minimum of a → linear function where the → arguments are subject to linear → constraints. For problems involving more than two variables or problems involving a large number of constraints, solution methods used are those that are adaptable to computers. A well-known such → algorithm is the → simplex method. → linear; → programmings. |
linear regression vâyâzi-ye xatti Fr.: regression linéaire In statistics, a regression method that establishes a linear relationship between two random variables. → linear; → regression. |
linear size andâze-ye xatti Fr.: taille linéaire The real, physical size, as opposed to angular size. |
linear system râžmân-e xatti Fr.: système linéaire Physics: A → dynamical system whose evolution is a linear process. If a change in any variable at some initial time produces a change in the same or some other variable at some later time, twice as large a change at the same initial time will produce twice as large a change at the same later time. |
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