# An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and AstrophysicsEnglish-French-Persian

## فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

### M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 47 Search : velocity
 Alfven velocity   تندای ِ آلفون   tondâ-ye AlfvénFr.: vitesse d'Alfvén   same as → Alfven speed.→ Alfven wave; → velocity. angular velocity   تندا‌ی ِ زاویه‌ای   tondâ-ye zâviye-yiFr.: vitesse angulaire   A measure of the angular displacement per unit time. Of a particle traveling on a circular path or a rotating body, the ratio of the angle traversed to the amount of time it takes to traverse that angle: ω = dθ/dt. For a rigid body, all lines in it rotate through the same angle in the same time, and the angular velocity is the characteristic of the body as a whole. The angular velocity is related to the linear velocity by the equation v = rω, where r is the distance of the point from the rotation axis. → vector angular velocity.→ angular; → velocity. asymptotic velocity   تندای ِ ناهمساوی   tondâ-ye nâhamsâviFr.: vitesse asymptotique   For → stellar winds, same as → terminal velocity.→ asymptotic; → velocity. average velocity   تندای ِ میانگین   tondâ-ye miyânginFr.: vitesse moyenne   The ratio of the displacement (Δx) of a particle, as it moves from point A to point B, to the corresponding time interval: v = Δx/Δt.→ average; → velocity. break-up velocity   تندای ِ گسست   tondâ-ye gosastFr.: vitesse de rupture   The velocity of a → rotating star at which the → centrifugal force equals the → gravitational force. Also known as → critical velocity. The simplest expression of the break-up velocity for an OB star, ignoring the → Eddington luminosity, is given by the relation: v = (GM / R)1/2, where M and R are the mass and radius of the star respectively, and G the → gravitational constant. A more realistic expression takes into account not only the → radiation pressure, but also the non-uniformity of the brightness over the stellar surface, as indicated by → von Zeipel theorem. With these conditions, the break-up velocity has a more complicated formula, corresponding to the velocity reached when somewhere on the star the → total gravity becomes zero.→ break + up; M.E.; O.E. up, uppe, → hyper-; → velocity. compact high-velocity clouds (CHVCs)   ابرهای ِ همپک ِ تندرو   abrhâ-ye hampak-e tondrowFr.: nuages compacts à grande vitesse   A population of relatively small (typically < 2°) → high-velocity clouds, which are spatially and kinematically isolated from the gas distribution in their environment. They are thought to be located in the → intergalactic medium of the → Local Group. critical velocity   تندای ِ پرژنی   tondâ-ye paržaniFr.: vitesse critique   1) Velocity of → fluid through a pipe at which the motion changes from → laminar to → turbulent flow. 2) Same as → break-up velocity.→ critical; → velocity. drift velocity   تندای ِ دلک   tond-ye delekFr.: vitesse de dérive   The average velocity of a charged particle in a plasma in response to an applied electric field.→ drift; → velocity. escape velocity   تندای ِ گریز   tondâ-ye gorizFr.: vitesse d'échapement   The speed an object must attain in order to free itself from the gravitational influence of an astronomical body. It is the minimum velocity for the object to enter a parabolic trajectory. The escape velocity is given by: Ve = (2GM/r)1/2, where G is the → gravitational constant, M is the mass of the astronomical body, and r is its radius. The escape velocity of the Earth is about 11.2 km s-1 that of the Moon is 2.4 km s-1. The escape velocity from the Sun is about 618 km s-1, and the solar escape velocity from Earth's orbit is about 42.1 km s-1.→ escape; → velocity. group velocity   تندای ِ گروه   tondâ-ye goruhFr.: vitesse de groupe   The velocity at which the envelope of a → wave packet propagates, vgr = dω/dk, at k0 (the central value of k). The group velocity can be equal to, larger, or smaller than the → phase velocity.→ group; → velocity. High Accuracy Radial velocity Planet Searcher (HARPS)   هارپس   HARPSFr.: HARPS   A high-precision echelle spectrograph built for exoplanet findings and installed on the ESO's 3.6m telescope at La Silla Observatory in Chile. The first light was achieved in February 2003. HARPS has discovered dozens of exoplanets, making it the most successful planet finder behind the Kepler space observatory. HARPS can detect movements as small as 0.97 m s-1 (3.5 km h-1), with an effective precision of the order of 30 cm s-1, and a → resolving power of 120,000 (Mayor et al., 2003, ESO Messengar 114, 20).→ high; → accuracy; → radial; → velocity; → planet; → search; → -er. high-velocity clouds (HVCs)   ابرهای ِ تندرو   abrhâ-ye tondrowFr.: nuages à grande vitesse   A population of neutral or partly ionized gas clouds in the → Galactic halo which are seen as high-altitude structures in the → atomic hydrogen  → 21 cm emission at high radial velocities (vLSR > 100 km/sec). They have substantial neutral → column densities (> 1019 cm-2) and their → metallicities range from 0.1 to about 1.0 times solar. The distances to the majority of them remain unknown. They may represent the continuing infall of matter onto the → Local Group. See also → compact high-velocity clouds.→ high; → velocity; → cloud. hypervelocity star (HVS)   ستاره‌ی ِ هیپرتند   setâre-ye hipertondFr.: étoile hypervéloce   A star whose velocity is so great that it will escape the → gravitational potential of our → Galaxy. Depending on the location and direction of motion, this criterion typically corresponds to a stellar velocity in the Galactic → rest frame larger than 400 km s-1, and up to about 1200 km s-1. The nature of the HVSs spans a wide range of types from → OB stars, to metal-poor → F-type stars and G/K dwarfs. While there is evidence from many late-type B HVSs in the → halo to originate from the Galactic → supermassive black hole (SMBH), other HVSs seem to originate from the → galactic disk. HVSs can obtain their large velocities from a number of different processes: 1) → Tidal disruption of → close binary stars by the central SMBH of the Milky Way. In this process one star is captured by the SMBH while the other is ejected at high speed via the → gravitational slingshot mechanism. 2) Exchange encounters in other dense stellar environments between hard binaries (→ hard binary) and → massive stars may cause stars to be ejected and escape our Galaxy. 3) Disruption of close binaries via → supernova explosions. The → runaway velocities of both ejected stars can reach large values when asymmetric supernovae are considered, i.e. when the newborn → neutron star receives a momentum kick at birth. (see, e.g., T. M. Tauris, 2014, and references therein, arXiv:1412.0657).→ hyper-; → velocity; → star. instantaneous velocity   تندای ِ لحظه‌ای   tondâ-ye lahze-yiFr.: vitesse instantanée   The velocity of a particle at some one instant of time, or at some one point of its path. It can be defined as the limiting value of the average velocity when the second point is taken closer and closer to the first point. Keplerian angular velocity   تندای ِ زاویه‌ای ِ کپلری   tondâ-ye zâviye-yi-ye KepleriFr.: vitesse angulaire keplérienne   The angular velocity of a point in a circular orbit around a central mass. It is given by: ΩK = (GM/r3)1/2, where G is the → gravitational constant, M is the mass of the gravitating object, and r is the radius of the orbit of the point around the object.→ Keplerian; → angular; → velocity. Keplerian orbital velocity   تندای ِ مدار ِ کپلری   tondâ-ye madâr-e KepleriFr.: vitesse d'orbite képlérienne   The velocity of an object orbiting another object according to → Kepler's laws.→ Keplerian; → orbital; → velocity. linear velocity   تندای ِ خطی   tondâ-ye xattiFr.: vitesse linéaire   The rate of change of the position of an object that is traveling along a straight path. In other words, the velocity of an object when its moving direction is not changing. For a given → angular velocity (ω), the linear velocity v of the particle is directly proportional to the distance of the particle from the center of the circular path: v = ω ×r.→ linear; → velocity. orbital velocity   تندایِ مداری   tondâ-ye madâriFr.: vitesse orbitale   The velocity of an object in a given orbit around a gravitating mass. For a perfect circular orbit, the velocity is described by the formula V =√[G(M + m)/r], where G is the gravitational constant, M the mass of the primary gravitating body, m the mass of the orbiting object, and r the radius of the orbit.→ orbital; → velocity. parabolic velocity   تندای ِ سهمی   tondâ-ye sahmiFr.: vitesse parabolique   The speed necessary to form a parabolic orbit around a gravitational center. It is also the minimum speed necessary to escape from the gravitational pull of a body.→ parabolic; → velocity. peculiar velocity   تندا‌ی ِ اَفد   tondâ-ye afdFr.: vitesse particulière   1) Velocity with respect to the Local Standard of Rest. 2) Any velocity a galaxy has with respect to us that is not a Hubble law velocity due to the expansion of space.→ peculiar; → velocity.

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