phase function karyâ-ye fâz Fr.: fonction de phase The variation in brightness of a target as the phase angle (the angle between Sun and observer as seen from the target) varies between 0° and 180°. The directional distribution of reflected (or scattered) radiation. The phase angle is the supplement of the scattering angle (the angle between the incident ray and the emerging ray); in other words, the sum of the phase angle and the scattering angle is always 180° (Ellis et al., 2007, Planetary Ring Systems, Springer). |
phase lag degarsâni-ye fâz Fr.: différence de phase 1) General: Same as → phase difference. → phase; lag, possibly from a Scandinavian source; cf. Norw. lagga "go slowly." Degarsâni, → difference; fâz→ phase. |
phase lock fâz bast Fr.: blocage de phase In electronics, a technique of adjusting the phase of an oscillator signal so that it will follow the phase of a reference signal. → phase; lock, from O.E. loc "bolt, fastening, enclosure;" cf. O.N. lok "fastening, lock," Goth. usluks "opening," O.H.G. loh "dungeon," Ger. Loch "opening, hole," Du. luck "shutter, trapdoor." Fâz, → phase; bast "fastening, lock," from bastan, from Mid.Pers. bastan/vastan "to bind, shut," Av./O.Pers. band- "to bind, fetter," banda- "band, tie," Skt. bandh- "to bind, tie, fasten," PIE *bhendh- "to bind," cf. Ger. binden, E. bind, → band. |
phase modulation degarâhangeš-e fâz (#) Fr.: modulation de phase Modulation in which the phase angle of a sine-wave carrier is caused to depart from the carrier angle by an amount proportional to the instantaneous magnitude of the modulating wave. → phase; → modulation. |
phase reversal vâgardâni-ye fâz, vâruneš-e ~ Fr.: inversion de phase An angular shift in phase by 180°. |
phase shift kib-e fâz Fr.: décalage de phase Any change in the phase of a periodic quantity or in the phase difference between two or more periodic quantities. |
phase space fazâ-ye fâz Fr.: espace des phases Of a dynamical system, a six-dimensional space consisting of the set of values that the position and velocity can take together (x, y, z, v_{x}, v_{y}, v_{z}). → velocity space. |
phase transfer function (PTF) karyâ-ye tarâvaž-e fâz Fr.: fonction de transfert de phase A measure of the relative phase in the image as function of frequency. It is the phase component of the → optical transfer function. A relative phase change of 180°, for example, results in an image with the black and white areas reversed. |
phase transition gozareš-e fâz Fr.: transition de phase The changing of a substance from one phase to another, by → freezing, → melting, → boiling, → condensation, or → sublimation. Also known as phase transformation. A well known phase transition is the transition from → water to → ice. Phase transitions are often associated with → symmetry breaking. In water there is a complete symmetry under rotations with no preferred direction. Ice has a crystal structure, in which certain orientations in space are preferred. Therefore, in transition from water to ice the continuous rotational symmetry is lost. → phase; → transition. |
phase velocity tondâ-ye fâz Fr.: vitesse de phase The speed at which any fixed phase (individual wave) in a → wave packet travels. It is expressed as v_{ph} = ω/k, where ω is the → angular frequency and k the → wave number. See also the → group velocity. |
phases of the Moon simâhâ-ye Mâng Fr.: phases de la lune → Lunar phase. |
phases of Venus simâhâ-ye Nâhid Fr.: phases de Vénus The gradual variation of the apparent shape of → Venus between a small, full → disk and a larger → crescent. The first telescopic observation of the phases of Venus by Galileo (1610) proved the → Ptolemaic system could not be correct. The reason is that with the → geocentric system the phases of Venus would be impossible. More specifically, in that model Venus lies always between Earth and Sun. Hence its fully bright surface would always be toward the Sun; so Venus could not be seen in full phase from Earth. Only slim crescents would be possible. On the other hand, this phenomenon could not prove the → heliocentric system, because it could equally be explained with the → Tychonic model. |
quantum phase transition (QPT) gozareš-e fâz-e kuântomi Fr.: transition de phase quantique A phase transitions that occurs at zero temperature as a function of a non-thermal parameter like → pressure, → magnetic field, or → chemical composition. In contrast to ordinary → phase transitions, which are associated with passage through a critical temperature, quantum phase transitions are associated with → quantum fluctuations, a consequence of → Heisenberg's uncertainty principle. For example, see → Bose-Einstein condensation. → quantum; → phase; → transition. |
quark-hadron phase transition gozareš-e fâz-e kuârk-hâdron Fr.: transition de phase quark-hadron A phase transition, predicted by cosmological models, to have occurred at approximately 10^{-5} seconds after the Big Bang to convert a plasma of free quarks and gluons into hadron. → quark; → hadron; → phase; → transition. |
radiative phase fâz-e tâbeši Fr.: phase radiative For a → supernova remnant (SNR), same as the → snowplow phase. |
rotation phase fâz-e carxeš Fr.: phase de rotation A position parameter used in → stellar magnetic field studies. Its zero value represents the moment when, during → stellar rotation, the positive → magnetic pole is nearest to the → line of sight. |
Sedov-Taylor phase fâz-e Sedov-Taylor Fr.: phase de Sedov-Taylor The second phase in the evolution of a → supernova remnant (SNR) occurring after the → free expansion phase. After the passage of the → reverse shock, the interior of the SNR is so hot that the energy losses by radiation are very small (all atoms are → ionized, no → recombination). The expansion is driven by the → thermal pressure of the hot gas and can therefore be regarded as → adiabatic; the → cooling of the gas is only due to the → expansion. Pressure forces accelerate the swept-up → interstellar medium (ISM) converting → thermal energy (which came from original explosion) into → kinetic energy of the → shell of swept-up mass. As the mass of the ISM swept up by the shell increases, it eventually reaches densities which start to impede the free expansion. → Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities arise once the mass of the swept-up ISM approaches that of the ejected material. This causes the SNR's ejecta to become mixed with the gas that was just shocked by the initial → shock wave. The Sedov-Taylor phase lasts some 10^{4} years and is followed by the radiative or → snowplow phase. Also called → adiabatic phase. After Sedov, L. (1959, Similarity and Dimensional Methods in Mechanics, New York, Academic Press) and Taylor, G. I. (1950, Proc. Roy. Soc. London, A, 201, 159 and 175); → phase. |
snowplow phase fâz-e barfrub Fr.: phase de chasse-neige The third phase in the evolution of a → supernova remnant (SNR) occurring after the → Sedov-Taylor phase when the mass of the swept-up material becomes much larger than the amount of the ejected material. The SNR is surrounded by a cool → shell of accumulated material that is being pushed from behind, similar to what occurs for a snowplow. During this phase, → radiative cooling becomes important and the total energy is no longer conserved. Also called the → radiative phase. |
stationary phase fâz-e istvar Fr.: phase stationnaire Mechanics: The condition of a body or system at rest. → stationary; → phase. |