An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
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فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 52 Search : gram
-gram
   -نگاشت   
-negâšt (#)

Fr.: -gramme   

A combining form meaning "something drawn, written" (diagram, spectrogram, oscillogram).

From Gk. -gramma, combining form of gramma "something written or drawn," → graph.

-Negâšt, from negâšt "drawn, written;" p.p. of negâštan, negârdan "to paint, write," → graph.

Argand diagram
  نمودار ِ ارگان   
nemudâr-e Argand

Fr.: diagramme d'Argand   

A geometrical representation of → complex numbers, which like the → Cartesian coordinates, uses two reference perpendicular axes. The horizontal axis represents the → real number part of the number and the perpendicular axis the → imaginary number part.

Named after Jean Robert Argand (1768-1822), a Swiss mathematician, who introduced this representation; → diagram.

backup program
  برنامه‌ی ِ یدکی   
barnâme-ye yadaki (#)

Fr.: programme de remplacement   

An auxiliary observing program to be carried out at telescope in case the atmospheric conditions make the main program unfeasible.

Backup, from → back + up; → program.

Barnâmé, → program; yadaki "reserve, substitute," from yadak "a led horse."

Baldwin-Phillips-Terlevich diagram
  نمودار ِ بالدوین-فیلیپس-ترلویچ   
nemudâr-e Baldwin-Phillips-Terlevich

Fr.: diagram de Baldwin-Phillips-Terlevich   

A set of nebular → emission line diagrams used to distinguish the ionization mechanism of → nebular gas. The most famous version consists of [N II]λ6584/Hα versus [OIII] λ5007/Hβ. The next two more commonly used BPT diagnostics are [S II] λλ6717,6731/Hα versus [O III] λ5007/Hβ and [O I] λ6300/Hα versus [O III]λ5007/Hβ. These diagrams use strong, optical lines of close proximity in the ratios to limit → reddening and → spectrophotometric effects. They are able to clearly distinguish different classes of → ionization, for example → LINERs from normal → H II regions and → active galactic nuclei.

Baldwin, J. A., Phillips, M. M., Terlevich, R., 1981 PASP 93, 5; → diagram.

butterfly diagram
  نمودار ِ پروانه‌وار   
nemudâr-e parvânevâr

Fr.: diagramme en papillon   

A graph on which the latitudes of → sunspots are plotted against time. It shows how sunspots migrate from high latitudes (30°- 40° north or south) to the solar equator (latitude of about 5°) during each → solar cycle, according to → Sporer's law. The shape of these distributions, when represented for both hemispheres, resembles the wings of a butterfly. The diagram was first created by Edward W. Maunder in 1904 to illustrate the solar cycle (M.S.: SDE).

Butterfly, from M.E. butterflye, from O.E. butorfleoge, from butor, butere "butter" floge "fly," but the etymology is not clear; → diagram.

Nemudâr, → diagram; parvânevâr "resembling a butterfly," from parvâné "butterfly" + -vâr similarity suffix.

color-color diagram
  نمودار ِ رنگ-رنگ   
nemudâr-e rang-rang (#)

Fr.: diagramme couleur-couleur   

A diagram based on two photometric colors usually representing the same class of astronomical objects.

color; → diagram.

color-luminosity diagram
  نمودار ِ رنگ-تابندگی   
nemudâr-e rang-tâbandegi

Fr.: diagramme couleur-luminosité   

A form of → Hertzsprung-Russell diagram in which the luminosity is the vertical axis and the → color index the horizontal axis.

color; → luminosity, → diagram.

color-magnitude diagram
  نمودار ِ رنگ-برز   
nemudâr-e rang-borz

Fr.: diagramme couleur-magnitude   

A form of → Hertzsprung-Russell diagram in which the visual absolute magnitude Mv is the vertical axis and the → color index the horizontal axis.

color; → magnitude, → diagram.

conceptual diagram
  نمودار ِ بگرتی   
nemudâr-e begerti

Fr.: schéma conceptuel   

Same as → concept map.

conceptual; → diagram.

correlogram
  همبازانش‌نگار   
hambâzâneš-negâr

Fr.: corrélogramme   

A plot showing a summary of correlation at different periods of time.

Correlo-, from → correlation; → -gram.

diagram
  نمودار   
nemudâr (#)

Fr.: diagramme   

A graphic representation of the behavior of one or several variables.

From Fr. diagramme, from L. diagramma, from Gk. diagramma "that which is marked out by lines," from diagraphein "to mark out by lines," from dia- "across, out" + graphein "to write, draw," → -graphy.

Nemudâr agent noun of nemudan "to show," → display, from the past stem nemud + -âr, such as xâstâr, foruxtâr, padidâr, parastâr (contraction of *parastidâr).

executable program
  برنامه‌ی ِ زکاردنی   
barnâme-ye zokârdani

Fr.: programme exécutable   

A program that can run on a → computer. It uses an → executable file.

executable; → program.

Feynman diagram
  نمودار ِ فاینمن   
nemudâr-e Feynman

Fr.: diagramme de Feynman   

A schematic representation, in quantum electrodynamics and quantum chromodynamics, of the way elementary particles like electrons and protons interact with each other by exchanging photons. Use of Feynman diagrams can greatly reduce the amount of computation involved in calculating a rate or cross section of a physical process.

After the American physicist Richard P. Feynman (1918-1988), Nobel prize 1965; → diagram.

gram
  گرم   
geram (#)

Fr.: gramme   

A unit of mass equal to one thousandth of a kilogram.

From Fr. gramme, from L.L. gramma "small weight," from Gk. gramma "small weight," originally "letter of the alphabet," from stem of graphein "to draw, write."

Geram, loanword from Fr. gramme, as above.

grammar
  دستور ِ زبان، زبان-دستور   
dastur-e zabân, zabân-dastur

Fr.: grammaire   

1) The study of the way the sentences of a language are constructed; → morphology and → syntax.
2) These features or constructions themselves (Dictionary.com).

M.E. gramarye, from O.Fr. gramaire "grammar; learning," especially Latin and philology, an "irregular semi-popular adoption" of L. grammatica, from Gk. grammatike (tekhne) "(art) of letters" with a sense of both philology and literature, from grammatikos "pertaining to or versed in letters or learning," from gramma "letter," → -gram.

Dastur-e zabân, literally "language rule," from dastur "rule; mandate, command; religious authority (of the Zoroastrians);" Mid.Pers. dast "able, capable;" Av. danh- "to teach, instruct;" cf. Skt. dams- "to show or teach wonderful skills, perform wise;" Gk. didasko "I learn;" PIE *dens- "to become skilfull; to teach, instruct" (Cheung 2007); + zabân, → language.

grammarian
  زبان-دستوردان   
zabân-dasturdân

Fr.: grammarien   

A specialist or expert in grammar.

From O.Fr. gramairien "learned man, person who knows Latin," agent noun from grammaire, → grammar.

Zabân-dasturdân, literally "knower of grammar," from zabân-dasturgrammar + dân agent noun and present stem of dânestan, → know.

grammatical
  دستور ِ زبانی، زبان-دستوری   
dastur-e zabâni, zabân-dasturi

Fr.: grammatical   

Of or relating to → grammar; conforming to standard usage.

From M.Fr. grammatical and directly from L. grammaticalis "of a scholar," from grammaticus "pertaining to → grammar."

Dastur-e zabâni, zabân-dasturidastur-e zabân, zabân-dastur, → grammar.

grammatical case
  کاته‌ی ِ زبان-دستوری   
kâte-ye zabân-dasturi

Fr.: cas grammatical   

An inflectional category, basically pertaing to nouns and pronoun, which marks their relationship with other parts of the sentence. sentence. → accusative case, → nominative case, → genitive case, → dative case, → ablative case, → vocative case, → imperative case.

grammatical; → case.

H-R diagram
  نمودار ِ H-R   
nemudâr-e H-R

Fr.: diagramme H-R   

Same as → Hertzsprung-Russell diagram.

Short for → Hertzsprung-Russell diagram.

heliogram
  هورنگاشت   
hurnegâšt (#)

Fr.: héliogramme   

A record made by a → heliograph.

helio-; + → -gram.

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