An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 66 Search : opt
active optics
  نوریک ِ ژیرا   
nurik-e žirâ

Fr.: optique active   

A technique for improving the → resolving power of a telescope by controlling the shape of the main mirror at a relatively slow rate. The → image quality is optimized automatically through constant adjustments by in-built corrective → actuators operating at fairly low temporal frequency ~0.05 Hz or less. → adaptive optics.

active; → optics.

adaptive optics
  نوریک ِ نیاوشی   
nurik-e niyâveši

Fr.: optique adaptative   

A technique for improving the → image quality of a telescope against → atmospheric turbulence in which image distortions are compensated by high-speed changes in the shape of a small, thin mirror. → wavefront; → wavefront distortion; → wavefront correction; → Strehl ratio; → tip-tilt mirror, → Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor, → active optics.

adaptive; → optics.

ADaptive Optics Near Infrared System (ADONIS)
     

Fr.: ADaptive Optics Near Infrared System (ADONIS)   

An → adaptive optics instrument used on the → European Southern Observatory (ESO) 3.6-m telescope at La Silla. It was an upgraded version of COME-ON-PLUS, the → Very Large Telescope (VLT) adaptive optics prototype. It had 52 → actuators and performed corrections of the mirror 200 times per second. The reference → wavefront was sensed in the → visible. The observation was done in the → near-infrared (1-5 μm).

adaptive; → optics; → near-infrared; → system.

adaptive optics system
  راژمان ِ نوریک ِ نیاوشی   
râžmân-e nurik-e niyâveši

Fr.: système d'optique adaptative   

An → optical system that uses → adaptive optics.

adaptive; → optics; → system.

adopt
  بر‌اپتیدن   
baroptidan

Fr.: adopter   

1) To choose or take as one's own; make one's own by selection or assent.
2) To take and rear (the child of other parents) as one's own child, specifically by a formal legal act.
3) To vote to accept (Dictionary.com).

M.E., from M.Fr. adopter, from L. adoptare, from → ad- + optare, → opt.

Baroptidan, on the model of bargozidan "to choose," from bar- "on, up, upon, in," → on-, + optidan, → opt.

adoption
  بر‌اپتش   
baropteš

Fr.: adoption   

The act of adopting. The state of being adopted.

adopt; → -tion.

adoptive
  بر‌اپتشی   
baropteši

Fr.: adoptif   

Of or involving adoption. Acquired or related by adoption.

adopt; → -ive.

catoptric light
  نور ِ بازتابیک   
nur-e bâztâbik

Fr.: lumière catoptrique   

Light that is reflected from a curved surface mirror.

catoprtics; → light.

catoptric system
  راژمان ِ بازتابیک   
râžmân-e bâztâbik

Fr.: système catoprtique   

An optical system in which the light is reflected only.

catoprtics; → system.

catoptrics
  بازتابیک   
bâztâbik

Fr.: catroptique   

The area of → optics which treats of the laws and properties of light reflected from reflective surfaces.

From Gk. katoptrikos, from katoptron "mirror" (from kat-, → cata-, + op- "to see," → optics, + -tron suffix of instruments) + -ikos, → -ics.

Bâztâbik, from bâztâb, → reflection, + -ik, → -ics.

coherent optics
  نوریک ِ همدوس   
nurik-e hamdus

Fr.: optique cohérente   

A branch of optics that uses coherent radiation to produce holographic three-dimensional images of objects.

coherent; → optics.

diopter
  دیوپتر   
dioptr (#)

Fr.: dioptre   

A unit of optical measurement that expresses the refractive power of a lens or prism. In a lens or lens system, it is the reciprocal of the focal length in meters.

L. dioptra, from Gk. di-, variant of dia- "passing through, thoroughly, completely" + op- (for opsesthai "to see") + -tra noun suffix of means.

Dioptr loanword from Fr.

dioptra
  دیوپترا   
dioptrâ

Fr.: dioptra   

An instrument used in antiquity to measure the apparent diameter of the Sun and the Moon. It was a rod with a scale, a sighting hole at one end, and a disk that could be moved along the rod to exactly obscure the Sun or Moon. The Sun was observed directly with the naked eye at sunrise or sunset in order to prevent eye damage. Aristarchus (c.310-230 B.C.), Archimedes (c. 290-212 B.C.), Hipparchus (died after 127 B.C.), and Ptolemy (c.100-170 A.D.) used the dioptra. The instrument could also serve for measurement of angles, land levelling, surveying, and construction of aqueducts and tunnels.

diopter.

extreme adaptive optics
  نوریک ِ نیاوشی ِ استوم   
nurik-e niyâveši-ye ostom

Fr.: optique adaptative extrême   

An → adaptive optics system with high-contrast imaging and spectroscopic capabilities. Extreme adaptive optics systems enable the detection of faint objects (e.g., → exoplanets) close to bright sources that would otherwise overwhelm them. This is accomplished both by increasing the peak intensity of point-source images and by removing light scattered by the atmosphere and the telescope optics into the → seeing disk.

extreme; → adaptive; → optics.

geometric optics
  نوریک ِ هندسی   
nurik-e hendesi

Fr.: optique géométrique   

A branch of physics that deals with reflection and refraction of rays of light without reference to the wave or physical nature of light.

geometric; → optics.

Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST)
  تلسکوپ ِ بزرگ ِ هنوینی برای ِ بردید   
teleskop-e bozorg-e hanvini barâye bardid

Fr.: Grand Télescope d'étude synoptique   

A new kind of optical telescope with a 6.7-m diameter → primary mirror, currently under construction in Chile. It will have a large → field of view almost 10 square degrees of sky, or 40 times the size of the full moon. The LSST will move quickly between images to rapidly → survey the sky. From its mountain top site in the Andes (Cerro Pachon, a 2,682-m high mountain in Coquimbo Region), the LSST will take more than 800 panoramic images each night with its 3.2 billion-pixel camera, recording the entire visible sky twice each week. Each patch of sky it images will be visited 1000 times during the survey, each of its 30-second observations will be able to detect objects 10 million times fainter than visible with the human eye. The LSST's combination of telescope, mirror, camera, → data processing, and survey will capture changes in billions of faint objects. Hence, the data it provides will be used to create an animated, three-dimensional cosmic map with unprecedented depth and detail. This map will serve many purposes, from locating the → dark matter and characterizing the properties of the → dark energy, to tracking transient objects, to studying our own Milky Way Galaxy in depth. It will even be used to detect and track → potentially hazardous asteroids that might impact the Earth.

large; → synoptic; → survey; → telescope.

off-axis optical system
  راژمان ِ نوریک ِ اپ-آسه   
râžmân-e nurik-e ap-âsé

Fr.: système optique hors axe   

An → optical system in which the → optical axis of the → aperture is not coincident with the mechanical center of the aperture.

off; → axis; → optical; → system.

opt
  اپتیدن   
optidan

Fr.: opter   

To make a choice; choose (usually followed by for).

From Fr. opter "to choose," from L. optare "to choose, desire, wish for," from L. optare "to desire, choose," from PIE root *op- "to choose, prefer."

Optidan, from L. optare, as above.

optative
  اپتانه، اپتمند   

Fr.: optatif   

Of, relating to, or constituting a verbal mood that is expressive of wish or desire.

From M.Fr. optatif, from L. optativus, from optatus, p.p. of optare, → opt, + -ivus, → -ive.

Optâné, optmand, from opt present stem of optidan, → opt, + adj. suffixes -âné, -mand. -yi.

optic
  ۱) نوری، نوریک؛ ۲) دیدگانی   
1) nuri, nurik; 2) didgâni

Fr.: optique   

1) Of or pertaining to the eye or sight.
2) Same as → optical.

From M.Fr. optique, from M.L. opticus "of sight or seeing," from Gk. optikos "of or having to do with sight," from optos "seen, visible," from op-, root of opsesthai "be going to see," related to ops "eye," from PIE *okw- "eye/see."

1) Nuri, nurik, from nur, → light + -i, -ik adj. suffix → -ic.
2) Didgâni, related to didgân "eyes," plural of didé "eye; seen," from didan "to see" (Mid.Pers. ditan "to see, regard, catch sight of, contemplate, experience;" O.Pers. dī- "to see;" Av. dā(y)- "to see," didāti "sees;" cf. Skt. dhī- "to perceive, think, ponder; thought, reflection, meditation," dādhye; Gk. dedorka "have seen").

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