Fr.: sonde lunaire
A probe for exploring and reporting on conditions on or about the Moon.
Parker Solar Probe
gomâne-ye xoršidi-ye Parker
Fr.: Parker Solar Probe
A NASA space mission launched on August 12, 2018 to study the outer corona of the Sun at very close distances. Parker Solar Probe is the first space mission to penetrate into solar corona as close as about 10 solar radii. It will approach the Sun to this distance 25 times. Approaching the Sun to such distances is a big technological challenge. The main goals of the mission are to answer these questions: Why is the solar corona so hotter than the solar surface? How is the solar wind accelerated? How are the energetic particles produced and transported?
Named after the physicist Eugene Newman Parker (1927-), who proposed the existence of the solar wind and did pioneering work for its interpretation.
1) gomâné (#); 2) gomâné zadan (#)
Fr.: 1) sonde; 2) sonder
1) (n.) An exploratory action or device for investigating and
obtaining information on a remote region.
M.L. proba "examination, test," L. probare "to test, prove worthy," from probus "worthy, good, upright."
1) Gomâné "a shaft sunk in order to ascertain the depth of the water when
making a subterraneous canal," from Proto-Iranian *vi-mā-, from vi-
"apart, away from, out" (cf. Av. vi-; O.Pers. viy- "apart, away;" Skt. vi-
"apart, asunder, away, out;" L. vitare "to avoid, turn aside") +
mā- "to measure" (cf.
O.Pers./Av. mā(y)- "to measure;" Mod.Pers.
mâ/mun/mân "measure," as in Pers. terms âzmâ- "to test;"
pirâmun "perimeter," âzmun "test, trial,"
peymân "measuring, agreement," peymâné "a measure; a cup, bowl;"
PIE base *me- "to measure;"
cf. Skt. mati "measures," matra- "measure;" Gk. metron "measure;"
Fr.: sonde solaire
A space probe designed to gather data about the Sun.
Fr.: sonde spatiale
A spacecraft carrying instruments intended for use in exploration of the physical properties of outer space or celestial bodies other than Earth.
Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP)
A space telescope launched by NASA in 2001 which measures the temperature fluctuations in the → cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. It creates a full-sky map of the CMB, with a 13 arcminute resolution via multi-frequency observations. WMAP is the first mission to use a → Lagrangian point L2 as its permanent observing station at a distance of 1.5 million km. WMAP completed its prime two years of mission operations in September 2003 and is continuing in 2009 its observations for still several years to come. WMAP's measurements have played a considerable role in establishing the current standard model of cosmology. They are consistent with a Universe that is dominated by → dark energy, with negative pressure or a → cosmological constant. In this model, the age of the Universe is 13.73 ± 0.12 billion years. The current expansion rate of the Universe measured by the Hubble constant, is 70.5 ± 1.3 km·s-1 Mpc-1. The content of the Universe consists of 4.56% ± 0.15% ordinary → baryonic matter, 22.8% ± 1.3% → cold dark matter, and 72.6% ± 1.5% of → dark energy, that accelerates the → expansion of the Universe.
WMAP, short for Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe, in honor of David Todd Wilkinson (1935-2002), who had been a member of the mission's science team.