giant magnetoresistance (GMR)
meqnât-istâdegi-ye kalân, istâdegi-ye meqnâtisi-ye ~
Fr.: magnétorésistance géante
A quantum mechanical phenomenon where the resistance of certain materials drops dramatically upon application of a magnetic field in certain structures composed of alternating layers of magnetic and nonmagnetic metals. The basis of the GMR is the dependence of the electrical resistivity of electrons in a magnetic metal on the direction of the electron spin, either parallel or anti-parallel to the magnetic moment of the layers. The 2007 Nobel Prize in physics was awarded to the French physicist Albert Fert (1938-) and German physicist Peter Grünberg (1939-) for the discovery of GMR.
baristâdan (#), istâdegi kardan (#)
To withstand the action or effect of; to strive against, or oppose.
M.E. resisten, O.Fr. resister, from L. resistere "to resist, to stand back, withstand," from → re- "against" + sistere "take a stand, stand firm," cognate with Pers. istâdan, as below.
Baristâdan "to withstand, to stand in opposition," from bar-
opposition prefix, → object, + istâdan "to stand,"
baristgari, istâdegi (#)
1) General: The act or power of resisting, opposing, or withstanding.
From → resist + -ance a suffix used to form nouns either from adjectives in -ant or from verbs.
1) Characterized by or showing resistance.
Present participle of → resist, with -ant a suffix forming adjectives and nouns from verbs.
Capable of or inclined to resistance; resisting.
A property of a → conductor which is defined as the ratio of the → electric intensity (E) to the → current density (J): ρ = E/J. The greater the resistivity, the greater the intensity needed to establish a given current density, or the smaller the current density for a given intensity. A "perfect" conductor would have zero resistivity, and a "perfect" → insulator an infinite resistivity.
An electrical component used to introduce a known value of resistance into a circuit.