An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 59 Search : rim
Aspect experiment
  آزمایش ِ اسپه   
âzmâyeš-e Aspect

Fr.: expérience d'Aspect   

A series of experiments carried out in the early 1980s by Alain Aspect and his colleagues that showed the violation of → Bell's inequality. Accordingly, quantum phenomena cannot be described by the → hidden variable theories, contrarily to the → EPR paradox interpretation.

Alain Aspect (1947-); → experiment. Aspect et al., 1982, Physical Review Letters, Vol. 49, No. 25 and references therein.

calorimetry
  گرماسنجی   
garmâsanji (#)

Fr.: calorimétrie   

The measurement of the amount of → heat involved in various processes, such as chemical reactions, changes of state, and formation of solutions.

From L. calori- "heat," combining form of calor, → calorie, + → -metry.

Garmâsanji, from garmâ  → heat + -sanji  → -metry.

Carnal-Mlynek experiment
  آزمایش ِ کارنال-ملینک   
âzmâyeš-e Carnal-Mlynek

Fr.: expérience Carnal-Mlynek   

An experiment devised to produce → interference patterns from a beam of helium atoms passing through two adjacent apertures, as in → Young's experiment.

Named after O. Carnal and J. Mlynek, who first carried out this experiment in 1991 (Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2689); → experiment.

colorimetry
  رنگ سنجی   
rangsanji (#)

Fr.: colorimétrie   

The measurement and definition of unknown colors in terms of standard colors.

color; → -metry.

crater rim
  لبه‌ی ِ لاوک   
labe-ye lâvak

Fr.: bords de cratère   

That part an → impact crater that extends above the height of the local surface, usually in a circular or elliptical pattern.

crater; → rim.

crime
  بزه   
bazah (#)

Fr.: crime   

An action or an instance of negligence that is deemed injurious to the public welfare or morals or to the interests of the state and that is legally prohibited (Dictionary.com).

M.E., from O.Fr. crimne, from L. crimen "charge, indictment, accusation; offense."

Bazah, from Mid.Pers. bazag "crime, misdeed," bazagkâr "evil-doer," Parthian bzg "evil, wicked."

criminal
  ۱) بزهی؛ ۲) بزه‌کار   
1) bazahi; 2) bazahkâr

Fr.: criminel   

1) Of the nature of or involving crime.
2) A person guilty or convicted of a crime.

L. criminalis, → crime; → -al.

Davisson-Germer experiment
  آزمایش ِ دیویسون-جرمر   
âzmâyeš-e Davisson-Germer

Fr.: expérience de Davisson-Germer   

The experiment carried out in 1927 that confirmed the → de Broglie hypothesis as to the → wave nature of the → electron. It showed that electrons scattering off crystals form a → diffraction pattern. The experimental setup consisted of a → nickle chloride → crystal as → target, an electron gun, and a → detector placed on a graduated circular scale. The intensity of the reflected electrons was measured as a function of angle and electron energy. The observations showed a strong intensity peak at a certain angle. The nickel crystal acted as a → diffraction grating. → Constructive interference occurred at a particular angle, where the peak intensity was observed in accord with → Bragg's law. Interestingly, the intent of the initial experiment was was not to confirm the de Broglie hypothesis. In fact, the discovery was made by accident.

Carried out by American physicists Clinton Davisson (1881-1958) and Lester Germer (1896-1971); → experiment.

double-slit experiment
  آزمایش ِ شکاف ِ دوتایی   
âzmâyeš-e šekâf-e dotâyi (#)

Fr.: expérience de double fente   

An experiment of → diffraction and → interference of two light beams using a → double slit; → Young's experiment.

double; → slit; → experiment.

experiment
  آزمایش   
âzmâyeš (#)

Fr.: expérience   

An act or operation for the purpose of discovering something unknown or of testing a principle, supposition. See: → Aspect experiment, → Carnal-Mlynek experiment, → Davisson-Germer experiment, → double-slit experiment, → Eratosthenes experiment, → Hafele-Keating experiment, → Hertz experiment, → Michelson-Morley experiment, → Millikan's oil-drop experiment, → Pascal's barrel experiment, → random experiment, → Stern-Gerlach experiment, → thought experiment, → toothed-wheel experiment, → Trouton-Noble experiment, → Young's experiment.

From O.Fr. experiment, from L. experimentum "a trial, test," from experiri "to test, try," from → ex- "out of" + peritus "experienced, tested."

Âzmâyeš, verbal noun of âzmudan, âzmây- "to try, experiment, test;" Mid.Pers. uzmudan, ôzmutan "to test, try, prove;" from O.Pers./Av. *uz-māy-, from uz-, → ex- + mā(y)- "to measure," Proto-Ir. *maH- "to measure;" PIE *meH- "to measure;" cf. Skt. mati "measures," matra "measure;" Gk. metra "lot, portion;" L. metri "to measure."

Fermat prime
  نخست ِ فرما   
naxost-e Fermat

Fr.: nombre de Fermat premier   

A → Fermat number, 22n + 1, that is a → prime number. The only known Fermat primes are: 3, 5, 17, 257, and 65537, corresponding to n = 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4.

Fermat's principle; → prime.

Hafele-Keating experiment
  آزمایش ِ هافل-کیتینگ   
âzmâyeš-e Hafele-Keating

Fr.: expérience de Hafele-Keating   

An experiment performed in 1971 using four atomic → cesium clocks transported in jet airplanes eastward and westward around the Earth to verify the → time dilation predicted by the theory of → special relativity.

J.C. Hafele and R. E. Keating, 1972, Science 177, 166; → experiment.

Hertz experiment
  آزمایش ِ هرتز   
âzmâyeš-e Hertz (#)

Fr.: expérience de Hertz   

A laboratory experiment carried out by Heinrich Hertz in 1888 to generate and detect → electromagnetic waves for the first time. It involved a high voltage power source, consisting of two → capacitors, each provided with a conducting rod. The rods were separated by a small → spark gap and connected to an → induction coil. When the electrodes were raised to a sufficiently high → potential difference, a spark passed across the gap, and an oscillating discharge took place. A group of waves with a wavelength of a few meters were emitted at each discharge. A wire loop provided with a detecting spark gap, held away from the oscillating sparks, produced sparks upon arrival of the oscillating electric and magnetic fields.

hertz (Hz); → experiment.

interim
  اندریم   
andarim

Fr.: intérim   

1a) An intervening time; interval; meantime.
1b) A temporary or provisional arrangement.
2) For, during, belonging to, or connected with an intervening period of time; temporary; provisional (Dictionary.com).

L. interim (adv.) "in the meantime, meanwhile," originally "in the midst of that," from → inter- "between" + im, an old accusative of "is, he, this, that."

Andarim, from andar-, → inter-, + im variant em "this;" Mid.Pers. im "this;" from Old.Pers./Av. ima "this;" Skt. ima; cf. Lori (Laki) im "this side." The Mid.Pers. im occurs in Mod.Pers. as em- in emruz "today," emšab "tonight," and emsâl "this year."

Lorimer burst
  بلک ِ لوریمر   
belk-e Lorimer

Fr.: sursaut Lorimer, impulsion ~   

The first ever discovered → fast radio burst. It was done during a search of archival data from a 1.4-GHz survey of the → Magellanic Clouds using the multi-beam receiver on the 64-m Parkes Radio Telescope in Australia.

D. R. Lorimer et al., 2007, Science, 318, 777; → burst.

Mersenne prime
  نخست ِ مرسن   
naxost-e Mersenne

Fr.: nombre de Mersenne premier   

A → prime number of the form 2p - 1, where p is a prime. As of February 2013, 48 Mersenne primes are known. The largest known prime number is 257,885,161 - 1. Each prime gives rise to an even → perfect number.

Marin Mersenne (1588-1648), French theologian, philosopher, mathematician and music theorist; → prime.

Michelson-Morley experiment
  آزمایش ِ مایکلسون-مورلی   
âzmâyeš-e Michelson-Morley (#)

Fr.: expérience de Michelson-Morley   

An experiment performed in 1887 to establish the presence or absence of an → ether, a medium through which light was supposed to travel. The experiment aimed to measure the speed of light coming from different directions. However no → ether drift was found. The null results obtained showed that the ether hypothesis was incorrect. Consequently, the theory of → special relativity, with its hypothesis that the speed of light is the same in all → inertial frames, reconciled the results of the Michelson-Morley experiment with the rest of physics.

Michelson interferometer; Michelson received the Nobel Prize in 1907 for his work, the first American to receive the Prize in science. Edward Williams Morley (1838-1923), an American chemist; → experiment.

Miller-Urey experiment
  آزمایش ِ میلر-اوری   
âzmâyeš-e Miller-Urey

Fr.: expérience de Miller-Urey   

A chemical experiment conducted in 1953 that aimed at checking Alexander Oparin's and J. B. S. Haldane's hypothesis that under putative conditions present in the atmosphere of the early Earth inorganic molecules would spontaneously form organic molecules. Miller and Urey filled a sterile flask with a mixture of water, ammonia, methane, and hydrogen. The mixture was heated to evaporate water to produce water vapor. High-voltage electric sparks were passed through the mixture to simulate lightning. After a week, contents were analyzed. Amino acids, the building blocks for proteins, were found.

Named after Stanley L. Miller (1930-2007) and Harold C. Urey (1893-1981); → experiment.

Millikan's oil-drop experiment
  آزمایش ِ میلیکن   
âzmâyeš-e Millikan (#)

Fr.: expérience de Millikan   

A precision experiment for measuring the → electron charge. By studying the falling speed of small charged droplets in the gravitational field of the Earth subjected to an adjustable electric field, Millikan (1909) was able to demonstrate conclusively the discrete nature of electric charge, and moreover measure the charge of an individual electron.

Robert Andrews Millikan (1868-1953); → experiment.

Modules for Experiments in Stellar Astrophysics (MESA)
     
MESA

Fr.: MESA   

An open-source, one-dimensional astrophysical code which is capable of calculating the evolution of stars in a wide range of environments. It works according to the → Henyey method and uses many modules that deal with various aspects of the theoretical models, such as the → equation of state (EOS), → nuclear reaction networks, → chemical composition, micro-physics, or macro-physics. The EOS and corresponding opacities or nuclear networks are provided in tabulated formats and can be selected by the user, while the micro-physics and macro-physics can be controlled by inlists of relevant parameters and settings (Paxton et al. 2015, ApJS 220, 15 and references therein).

module; → experiment; → stellar; → astrophysics.

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