1) hâbard; 2) hâbardidan
Fr.: combat, lutte; contester, disputer
1a) A race, conflict, or other competition between rivals, as for a prize.
From Fr. contester "to dispute, oppose," from M.Fr., from L. contestari "to call to witness, bring action," from → com- "together" + testari "to bear witness," from testis "a witness."
Hâbard, from hâ-, variant ham- "together," → com-, + bard "to fight, to struggle," cf. nabard, nibard "fight, struggle, war," variants nâvard, âvard, ultimately from Proto-Ir. *part- "to fight, to struggle."
first derivative test
âzmun-e vâxane-ye naxost
Fr.: teste de la dérivée première
Fr.: test de Fizeau
Foucault knife-edge test
âzmun-e kârd-e Foucault
Fr.: contrôle par foucaultage
A method used to test the → image quality of → mirrors and → lenses. The test is performed by moving a knife edge laterally into the → image of a small → point source. The → eye, or a → camera, is placed immediately behind the knife edge, and the → exit pupil of the system is observed.
greatest eastern elongation
bozorgtarin derâzeš-e xâvari
Fr.: plus grande élongation est
The Greatest → elongation of an inferior planet occurring after sunset.
Fr.: la plus grande éclipse
The instant when the axis of the Moon's → shadow cone passes closest to Earth's center. For → total eclipses, the instant of greatest eclipse is virtually identical to the instants of greatest magnitude and greatest duration. However, for → annular eclipses, the instant of greatest duration may occur at either the time of greatest eclipse or near the sunrise and sunset points of the eclipse path (F. Espenak, NASA).
Fr.: plus grande élongationt
The largest → elongation of an inferior planet from the Sun. It may be → greatest eastern elongation or → greatest western elongation. The greatest elongation of Mercury is about 28°, and thus Mercury can only be observed 112 minutes after sunset or before sunrise. For Venus, it is about 47°, making it visible at most about 3 hours after sunset or before sunrise.
greatest western elongation
bozorgtarin derâzeš-e bâxtari
Fr.: plus grande élongation ouest
The Greatest → elongation of an inferior planet occurring before sunrise.
âzmun-e Hârtman (#)
Fr.: test de Hartmann
A way of testing the quality of optical systems. In this method, incident rays from a point source are isolated by small holes in an opaque screen located close to the lens or mirror under test. Photographic plates are inserted into the beam within and beyond the focal region. The black dots on the exposed plates, which reveal differences of optical focus in the various zones of the lens or mirror, are analyzed to yield the objective's figure. → Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor.
Named after the German astronomer Johannes Hartmann (1865-1936), who developed the method. → test.
âzmun-e kârd (#)
Fr.: contrôle par foucaultage
The same as → Foucault knife-edge test.
Fr.: test du lithium
The presence or not of the lithium absorption line at 6708 Å, which is considered to be a sufficient condition for → substellarity in → L dwarfs. It has been shown that any object with lithium absorption and → effective temperature less than 2670 K is a → brown dwarf. For a discussion of potential problems with the lithium test see Kirkpatrick et al. (1993, ApJ 406, 701).
âzmun-e âyené (#)
Fr.: test d'un miroir
The observation and measurement of the flatness of a mirror surface. The process generally is done before coating so as not to damage the delicate coated surface. For coated and curved surfaces, non-contact methods are often employed, generally using interference techniques.
1) pâxos; 2) pâxosidan
Fr.: 1) protestation; 2) protester
1) An expression or declaration of objection, disapproval, or dissent, often
in opposition to something a person is powerless to prevent or avoid.
M.E., from O.Fr. protest, from preotester, and directly from L. protestari "to declare publicly, protest," from → pro- "forth, before" + testari "testify," from testis "witness."
Pâxos, literally "strike against," from pâ-, contraction of pâd- "agianst," → counter-, + xos "to strike," Gazi xos-, xus-, xûs- "to strike, throw;" Hamedani xostän, xus- "to throw", Khunsari xus- "to strike, throw," Kurd. (Sorani) xa-, (Kurmanji) xistin, xi- "to strike, beat," Qohrudi xosta "to throw," Ardestâni xoste, Shughni xust, xay-; Mid.Pers. xwas-, hws- "to trample;" Av. paiti xvanh- "to thresh;" Proto-Ir. *huah- "to strike, thresh" (Cheung 2007). ,
1a) (n.) An adherent of any of those Christian bodies that separated from the Church of
Rome during the Reformation, or of any group descended from them.
From Ger. or Fr. protestant, from L. protestantem (nominative protestans), p.p. of protestari, → protest.
Pâxosân agent noun or adj. from pâxosidan, → protest.
The religion of → Protestants.
1) The act of protesting.
A person who publicly demonstrates opposition to something. Also protestor.
second derivative test
âzmun-e vâxane-ye dovom
Fr.: test de la dérivée seconde
Fr.: test de significativité
Statistics: A procedure that is used to decide whether to accept or reject the → null hypothesis or to determine whether observed samples differ significantly from expected results. Also called → test of significance and → rule of decision.
statistical hypothesis testing
âzmun-e engâre-ye âmâri
Fr.: test d'hypothèse statistique
A method of making decision between rejecting or not rejecting a → null hypothesis on the basis of a set of observations.