An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 419 Search : per
supercooling
  اَبَر-سردش   
abar-sardeš

Fr.: surfusion   

The process by which a liquid or a gas is cooled below the temperature at which a → phase transition should occur. For example, water can be cooled well below the → freezing point without freezing (as often happens in the upper atmosphere). The introduction of an → impurity or surface can trigger freezing.

super-; → cooling.

supercritical
  ابر-پرژنی   
abar-paržani

Fr.: supercritique   

1) Thermodynamics: Describing a condition in which a substance has a temperature or pressure above its critical value of temperature or pressure.
2) Nuclear physics: Of or relating to an arrangement of → fissile material where more neutrons are being produced than are wasted and escape.

super-; → critical.

supercritical fluid
  شاره‌ی ِ ابر-پرژنی   
šârre-ye abar-paržani

Fr.: fluide supercritique   

A fluid that is at a temperature and pressure above its thermodynamic critical point. In these conditions the substance acquires unique characteristics of density and mobility. Supercritical fluids exist deep inside some planets; for example, there is supercritical water deep inside the Earth.

supercritical; → fluid.

superfluid
  اَبَر-شاره   
abar-šâré

Fr.: superfluide   

A → fluid that exhibits frictionless flow, very high heat → conductivity, and other unusual physical properties. For example, → liquid helium at the temperature about 2.17 K (→ lambda point) becomes a zero → viscosity fluid which will move rapidly through any pore in the apparatus. See also → helium II.

super-; → fluid

superfluidity
  اَبَر-شارگی   
abar-šâregi

Fr.: superfluidité   

The phenomenon occurring in → liquid helium (→ helium I) cooled below the → lambda point temperature of 2.17 K, whereby it flows freely with no measurable → friction and → viscosity.

super-; → fluidity.

supergalactic
  ابرکهکشانی   
abarkahkašâni

Fr.: supergalactique   

Of or pertaining to a system composed of nearby groups and clusters of galaxies in the → local Universe. Se also → galaxy cluster.

super-; → galactic.

supergalactic coordinate system
  راژمان ِ هماراهای ابرکهکشانی   
râžmân-e hamârâhâ-ye abarkahkašâni

Fr.: système des coordonnées supergalactiques   

A spherical → coordinate system in which the → equator is the → supergalactic plane. Supergalactic longitude, SGL, is measured → counterclockwise from direction l = 137.37 deg, b = 0 deg (between 0 and 360 deg). The zero point for supergalactic longitude is defined by the intersection of this plane with the → Galactic plane. In the → equatorial coordinate system (J2000) this is approximately 2.82 h, +59.5 deg. Supergalactic latitude, SGB, is measured from the supergalactic plane, positive northward and negative southward. The North Supergalactic Pole (SGB=90 deg) lies at galactic coordinates l = 47.37 deg, b = +6.32 degrees, corresponding to the equatorial coordinate system (J2000) 18.9 h, +15.7 deg.

supergalactic; → coordinate; → system.

supergalactic latitude
  ورونای ِ ابرکهکشانی   
varunâ-ye abarkahkašâni

Fr.: latitude supergalactique   

supergalactic coordinate system.

supergalactic; → latitude.

supergalactic longitude
  درژنای ِ ابرکهکشانی   
derežnâ-ye abarkahkašâni

Fr.: longitude supergalactique   

supergalactic coordinate system.

supergalactic; → longitude.

supergalactic plane
  هامن ِ ابرکهکشانی   
hâmon-e abarkahkašâni

Fr.: plan supergalactique   

The symmetry plane of the → Local Supercluster, where density of galaxies in our environment is the largest. The plane passes through the → Virgo cluster of galaxies, about which many of the brightest galaxies in the sky are concentrated. The supergalactic plane was recognized by Gérard de Vaucouleurs (1918-1995) in 1953 from the  → Shapley-Ames catalogue.

supergalactic; → plane.

supergiant
  اَبَر-غول   
abar-qul

Fr.: supergéante   

A star with maximum intrinsic brightness and low density. The radius of a supergiant can be as large as 1000 times that of the Sun. See also → blue supergiant; → red supergiant; → yellow supergiant.

super-; → giant

supergiant B[e] star (sgB[e])
     
setâre-ye B[e]-ye abarqul

Fr.: étoile B[e] supergéante   

A highly luminous → B[e] star with a luminosity greater than 104L_sun. A number of such objects exist in the → Magellanic Clouds, e.g. LMC R126, R66, SMC R4, and R50. A likely example in our Galaxy is MWC 300.

supergiant; → B[e] star.

supergranulation cell
  یاخته‌ی ِ اَبَر-دانه‌بندی   
yâxte-ye abar-dâne-bandi

Fr.: cellule de supergranulation   

One of a number of large convective cells (about 15,000-30,000 km in diameter) in the solar photosphere, distributed fairly uniformly over the solar disk, that last longer than a day.

super-; → granulation; → cell.

superheated vapor
  بخار ِ اَبَر-گرمیده   
boxâr-e abar-garmidé

Fr.: vapeur surchauffée   

A vapor that has been heated above its boiling point temperature corresponding to the pressure.

super-; → heat; → vapor.

superheating
  اَبَر-گرمش، اَبَر-گرمایش   
abar-garmeš, abar-garmâyeš

Fr.: surchauffe   

The process in which a liquid is heated to a temperature higher than its boiling point, without boiling. Superheating is achieved by heating a homogeneous substance in a clean container, free of nucleation sites.

super-; → heating.

superheterodyne receiver
  گیرنده‌ی ِ اَبَر-هترودینی   
girande-ye abar-heterodini (#)

Fr.: récepteur superhétérodyne   

A radio receiver which uses the → superheterodyne technique.

super-; → heterodyne; → receiver.

superheterodyne technique
  تشنیک ِ اَبَر-هترودین   
tašnik-e abar-heterodin

Fr.: technique superhétérodyne   

The technique used in a radio receiver in which the frequency of an incoming signal is changed by adding it to a signal generated within the receiver to produce fluctuations or beats of a frequency equal to the difference between the two signals. See also → mixer.

superheterodyne receiver; → technique.

superior
  زبرین   
zabarin (#)

Fr.: supérieur   

Upper or situated higher up in rank, degree, etc.

M.E., from O.Fr., from L. superiorem (nominative superior) "higher," comparative of superus "situated above, upper," from super "above, over," → super-.

Zabar, from Mid.Pers. azabar "above," related to abar (Mod.Pers. bar- "on, upon, up"); O.Pers. upariy "above; over, upon, according to;" Av. upairi "above, over," upairi.zəma- "located above the earth;" cf. Gk. hyper- "over, above;" L. super-, as above; O.H.G. ubir "over" + -in comparative suffix.

superior conjunction
  هم‌ایستان ِ زبرین   
hamistân-e zabarin

Fr.: conjonction supérieure   

The conjunction of a planet with the Sun which occurs when the planet is beyond the Sun. → inferior conjunction.

superior; → conjunction.

superior culmination
  بالست ِ زبرین   
bâlest-e zabarin

Fr.: culmination supérieure   

The meridian transit of a star between the celestial pole and the south point of the horizon. Same as → upper culmination. → inferior culmination.

superior; → culmination.

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