An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory



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Number of Results: 1068
prism binoculars
  دوچشمی ِ منشوری، ~ منشوردار   
docešmi-ye manšuri, ~ manšurdâr

Fr.: jumelles à prismes   

An optical device consisting of a pair of small telescopes mounted side by side, each telescope having two prisms between the eyepiece and objective for erecting the image.

prism; → binoculars.

prism ocular
  چشمی ِ منشوری، ~ منشوردار   
caši-ye manšuri, ~ manšurdâr

Fr.: prisme oculaire   

An ocular equipped with a prism that forms an upright image in an astronomical telescope.

prism; → ocular.

prismatic astrolabe
  اسطرلاب ِ منشوری   
ostorlâb-e manšuri

Fr.: astrolabe à prisme   

An instrument used to determine the precise timing of a star's passage across a vertical circle. It is used for making precise determinations of the positions of stars and planets, and can be used inversely to determine the latitude and longitude of the observer, assuming the star positions are accurately known. It consists of an accurate prism, a small pool of mercury to serve as an artificial horizon. The most notable example of this type of instrument is that of → Danjon astrolabe.

Adj. of → prism + → astrolabe.

prismatic spectrum
  بیناب ِ منشوری   
binâb-e manšuri

Fr.: spectre prismatique   

The spectrum formed by a dispersing prism or a dispersing prism system.

Adj. of → prism + → spectrum.


Fr.: intimité   

The state of being private.

Noun from → private.


Fr.: privé   

Pertaining to or affecting a particular person or a small group of persons; individual; → personal (

L. privatus "set apart, peculiar, personal," used in contrast to publicus, p.p. of privare "to separate, deprive, to rob" from privus "one's own, individual."

Vâvan, literally "separated, not bound," from vâ- separation prefix, → de-, + van, contraction of vand, band, from vastan, bastan "to bind, fasten, close," → band.


Fr.: privatisation   

The transfer from public to private ownership.

private; → -tion.


Fr.: privatiser   

To transfer from public to private ownership and control.

private; → -ize.


Fr.: privilège   

A special right, advantage, or immunity granted or available only to a particular person or group (

M.E., from O.Fr. privilege "right, priority, privilege" and directly from L. privilegium "law applying to one person, bill of law in favor of or against an individual," from privus "individual," → private.

Fardâré, from far- intensive prefix "much, abundant; elegantly," → perfect, + dâr present stem of dâštan "to have, possess," → property, + noun/relation suffix .


Fr.: privilégié   

Having special rights, advantages, or immunities.

Adjective from → privilege.

farâ- (#)

Fr.: pro-   

A prefix of priority in space or time having especially a meaning of advancing or projecting forward or outward.

From L. pro "in favor of, in place of, before, for," also in some cases from cognate Gk. pro "before, in front of," both from PIE base *por- "forward, through;" cf. Pers. farâ-, as below; Gk. para- "from beside, against, beyond;" Goth. faura "before," O.E. fore "before, for, on account of."

Farâ- "forward, along; above, upon, over; before, foremost, opposing, facing," variant far- intensive prefix "much, abundant; elegantly," from Mid.Pers. fra-; O.Pers. fra- "forward, forth;" Av. frā, fərā-, fra- "forward, forth; before; excessive" (fratəma- "first, front," pouruua- "first," fra-cara- "preceding"); cf. Skt. prá- "before; forward, in fron," prathama- "earliest, initial," pūrva- "first;" Gk. pro; L. pro, as above.


Fr.: probabilité   

1) General: The quality or fact of being probable. A strong → likelihood or chance of something.
2) Statistics: The branch of → mathematics that studies the possible outcomes of given events and their relative distributions. → probability theory.

From → probable + → -ity.

probability curve
  خم ِ شوانایی   
xam-e šavânâyi

Fr.: courbe de probabilité   

A curve that describes the distribution of probability over the values of a random variable.

probability; → curve.

probability density function
  کریای ِ چگالی ِ شوانایی   
karyâ-ye cagâli-ye šavânâyi

Fr.: fonction de densité de probabilité   

A mathematical function whose integral over any interval gives the probability that a continuous → random variable has values in this interval. Also known as → density function, frequency function, → probability function.

probability; → density; → function.

probability distribution
  واباژش ِ شوانایی   
vâbâžeš-e šavânâyi

Fr.: distribution de probabilité   

The function that describes the range of possible values that a random variable can attain and the probability that the value of the random variable is within any (measurable) subset of that range.

probability; → distribution.

probability function
  کریای ِ شوانایی   
karyâ-ye šavânâyi

Fr.: fonction de probabilité   

A function that represents a probability distribution in terms of integrals. Also called probability density function or density function.

probability; → function.

probability theory
  نگره‌ی ِ شوانایی   
negare-ye šavânâyi

Fr.: théorie des probabilités   

A branch of → mathematics with its own axioms and methods, which is based on the concept of → randomness and is concerned with the possible outcome of given → events and their relative → likelihoods and → distributions.

probability; → theory.


Fr.: probable   

Likely to happen or to be true; likely but uncertain.

From O.Fr. probable, from L. probabilis "provable," from probare "to try, to test, to prove worthy," from probus "worthy, good, upright, virtuous," from PIE *pro-bhwo- "being in front," from *pro-, extended form of base *per- (cf. Pers. farâ "forward, front"), + base *bhu- "to be" (cf. Pers. budan "to be").

Šavânâ (on the model of tavânâ "able, strong", from tav- "to be able"), from šow- present stem of šodan "to become, to be, to be doing, to go, to pass," from Mid.Pers. šudan, šaw- "to go;" Av. š(ii)auu-, šiyav- "to move, go," šiyavati "goes," šyaoθna- "activity; action; doing, working;" O.Pers. šiyav- "to go forth, set," ašiyavam "I set forth;" cf. Skt. cyu- "to move to and fro, shake about; to stir," cyávate "stirs himself, goes;" Gk. kinein "to move;" Goth. haitan "call, be called;" O.E. hatan "command, call;" PIE base *kei- "to move to and fro."

probable error (PE)
  ایرنگ ِ شوانا   
irang-e šavânâ

Fr.: erreur probable   

A deviation from the population mean μ such that 50% of the observations may be expected to lie between μ - PE and μ + PE. For the normal distribution, the probable error is 0.6745 times the standard deviation.

probable; → error.

  ۱) گمانه؛ ۲) گمانه زدن   
1) gomâné (#); 2) gomâné zadan (#)

Fr.: 1) sonde; 2) sonder   

1) (n.) An exploratory action or device for investigating and obtaining information on a remote region.
Same as → space probe. → lunar probe.
2) (v.) To conduct a thorough investigation of something.
To examine or explore with a probe.

M.L. proba "examination, test," L. probare "to test, prove worthy," from probus "worthy, good, upright."

1) Gomâné "a shaft sunk in order to ascertain the depth of the water when making a subterraneous canal," from Proto-Iranian *vi-mā-, from vi- "apart, away from, out" (cf. Av. vi-; O.Pers. viy- "apart, away;" Skt. vi- "apart, asunder, away, out;" L. vitare "to avoid, turn aside") + mā- "to measure" (cf. O.Pers./Av. mā(y)- "to measure;" Mod.Pers. mâ/mun/mân "measure," as in Pers. terms âz- "to test;" pirâmun "perimeter," âzmun "test, trial," peymân "measuring, agreement," peymâné "a measure; a cup, bowl;" PIE base *me- "to measure;" cf. Skt. mati "measures," matra- "measure;" Gk. metron "measure;" L. metrum).
2) Gomâné zadan composite infinitive of gomân with zadan "to strike, beat; to play an instrument; to do" (Mid.Pers. zatan, žatan; O.Pers./Av. jan-, gan- "to strike, hit, smite, kill" (jantar- "smiter"); cf. Skt. han- "to strike, beat" (hantar- "smiter, killer"); Gk. theinein "to strike;" L. fendere "to strike, push;" Gmc. *gundjo "war, battle;" PIE *gwhen- "to strike, kill").

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