An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory



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Number of Results: 1068
nimsâyé (#)

Fr.: pénombre   

1) The portion of a shadow in which light from an extended source is partially but not completely cut off by an intervening body; the area of partial shadow surrounding the umbra.
2) The lighter part of a shadow during an eclipse. An observer standing in the penumbra of a Solar eclipse will see a partial eclipse.
3) The lighter zone surrounding the dark area (→ umbra) of a → sunspot. It consists of fine, light filaments which are approximately radial for sunspots with circular outline, but irregular for complex spots.

N.L., from L. pæne "almost" + → umbra "shadow."

Nimsâyé, from nim "mid-, half" (Mid.Pers. nêm, nêmag "half;" Av. naēma- "half;" cf. Skt. néma- "half") + sâyé, → shadow; →umbra.

nimsâye-yi (#)

Fr.: pénombral   

Of or relating to a → penumbra.

penumbra; → -al.

penumbral lunar eclipse
  مانگ‌گرفت ِ نیمسایه‌ای   
mânggereft-e nimsâye-yi

Fr.: éclipse de lune pénombrale   

A lunar eclipse that occurs when the Moon passes through the Earth's → penumbra, but misses the darker umbral shadow. Because the Moon is only partially dimmed, a penumbral eclipse is not impressive. Total penumbral eclipses are rare, and when these occur, that portion of the Moon which is closest to the umbra can appear somewhat darker than the rest of the Moon.

penumbral; → eclipse.


Fr.: pivoine   

Any plant of the genus Paeonia, having showy, pink, red, or white, globular flowers. Originally cultivated in the temperate regions of Asia, China, Europe, and the northwest parts of North America.

M.E., from M. Fr. peonie, pioiné, from L.L. peonia, from L. pæonia, from Gk. paionia, perhaps from Paion, physician of the gods. The plant was recognized to possess many remedial properties, and was thus given an association with the gods.

Payoniyâ, loan from Gk, as above.

Peony star
  ستاره‌ی ِ پیونیا   
Setâre-ye Payoniyâ

Fr.: Etiole Pivoine   

A peony-shaped nebula around the → Wolf-Rayet star WR 102ka as shown by the → Spitzer Space Telescope image at 24 μm. The formation of this infrared bright nebula is attributed to the recent evolutionary history of WR 102ka during → LBV-type eruptions and/or its strong → stellar wind (see, e.g., A. Barniske et al. 2008, A&A 486, 971).

peony; → star.

mardom (#)

Fr.: gens, personnes, peuple, public   

1) Persons indefinitely or collectively; persons in general.
2) Human beings, as distinguished from animals or other beings (

M.E. peple, from O.Fr. peupel "people, population, crowd; mankind," from L. populus "a people, nation; a multitude, crowd," of unknown origin.

Mardom "man, human being, mankind, people;" from Mid.Pers. mardôm "human being, man, mankind, people" (from *mard-tohm "seed of man"), from mard "man, humanity" (cognate with mordan "to die"); O.Pers. martiya-; Av. marəta- "mortal, man," maša- "mortal;" cf. Skt. márta- "mortal, man;" Gk. emorten "died;" L. mortalis "subject to death."

1) par-; 2) per-

Fr.: per-   

1) A prefix meaning "through, thoroughly, utterly, very."
2) Chemistry: A prefix used in the names of inorganic chemical compounds containing an element in its highest oxidation state or containing a large or the largest possible proportion of an element.

From L. per "through, during, by means of, on account of," cognate with Pers. par-, pirâ-, as below; cf. Gk. → peri- "around, about, beyond;" O.C.S. pre-; Russ. pere- "through;" Lith. per "through;" Goth. fair-; Ger. ver-; O.E. fer-.

Par-, per-, variants of pirâ- "around, about," from Mid.Pers. pêrâ; O.Pers. pariy "around, about;" Av. pairi "around, over," per- "to pass over, beyond;" cf. Skt. pari; Indo-Iranian *pari- "around;" cf. Gk. peri "around, about, beyond;" L. per "through," as above; PIE base *per- "through, across, beyond."


Fr.: concevoir   

1) To become aware of, know, or identify by means of the senses.
2) To recognize, discern, envision, or understand (

M.E. perceiven, from Anglo-Fr. *perceivre, from O.Fr. percoivre "perceive, notice, see; understand," from L. percipere "obtain, seize entirely, take possession of," from L. → per- "thoroughly" + capere "to take," → concept.

&ACIRC;gertidan, from â- intensive prefix + gertidan "to take, seize," → concept.



The mental product of the act of perceiving, as distinguished from the thing perceived.



Fr.: perception   

The process of recognizing or identifying something. Usually employed of sense perception, when the thing which we recognize or identify is the object affecting a sense organ.

Verbal noun of → perceive.

perklorât (#)

Fr.: perchlorate   

Any salt of perchloric acid.

per-; → chlorate.

perchloric acid
  اسید پرکلریک   
asid perklorik (#)

Fr.: acide perchlorique   

A colorless liquid, HClO4, that reacts explosively with organic matter or other reducible materials.

perchlorate; → -ic; → acid.

  ۱) فرساخت، فرساز؛ ۲) فرساختن   
1) farsâxt, farsâz; 2) farsâxtan

Fr.: 1) parfait; 2) parfaire   

1a) Corresponding to an ideal standard or abstract concept.
1b) Exactly fitting the need in a certain situation or for a certain purpose.
2) To bring to perfection or completion. See also: → perfect cosmological principle, → perfect cube, → perfect gas, → perfect lens, → perfect number, → perfect power, → perfect set, → perfect square.

From M.E. parfit, from O.Fr. parfit, from L. perfectus "completed," p.p. of perficere "accomplish, finish, complete," from per- "through, thoroughly, utterly, very" + facere "to make, do, perform;" cognate with Pers. dâdan "to give" (O.Pers./Av. dā- "to give, grant, yield," dadāiti "he gives;" Skt. dadáti "he gives;" Gk. tithenai "to place, put, set," didomi "I give;" L. dare "to give, offer;" Rus. delat' "to do;" O.H.G. tuon, Ger. tun, O.E. don "to do;" PIE base *dhe- "to put, to do").

Farsâxt, farsâz, literally "thorougly made," from far- intensive prefix "much, abundant; elegantly" (Mid.Pers. fra- "forward, before; much; around;" O.Pers. fra- "forward, forth;" Av. frā, fərā-, fra- "forward, forth; excessive;" cf. Skt. prá- "before; forward, in fron;" Gk. pro "before, in front of;" L. pro "on behalf of, in place of, before, for;" PIE *pro-) + sâxt, sâz "made," short for sâxté, sâzidé "made; make, construction, structure; style," present stem of sâxtan, sâzidan "to build, make, fashion; to adapt, adjust, be fit" (from Mid.Pers. sâxtan, sâz-, Manichean Parthian s'c'dn "to prepare, to form;" Av. sak- "to understand, to mark," sâcaya- (causative) "to teach").

perfect cosmological principle
  پروز ِ کیهان‌شناسیک ِ فرساخت   
parvaz-e keyhânšenâsik-e farsâxt

Fr.: principe cosmologique parfait   

The → assumption, adopted by the → steady-state theory, that all observers, everywhere at all times, would view the same large-scale distribution of matter in the → Universe in all regions and in every direction. In contrast to the → cosmological principle, the perfect cosmological principle adds the assumption that the Universe does not change with time on the large scale.

perfect; → cosmological; → principle.

perfect cube
  کاب ِ فرساخت   
kâb-e farsâxt

Fr.: cube parfait   

An → integer of the form n3, where n is a → positive number. In other words, a → perfect power when k = 3.

perfect; → cube.

perfect gas
  گاز ِ فرساخت   
gâz-e farsâxt

Fr.: gaz parfait   

A hypothetical gas with molecules of negligible size that exert no intermolecular forces. Also called → ideal gas.

perfect; → gas.

perfect lens
  عدسی ِ فرساخت   
adasi-ye farsâxt

Fr.: lentille perfaite   

A theoretical, ideal lens capable of producing perfect images. Used as a lens design and analysis tool to image collimated output from an afocal system.

perfect; → lens.

perfect number
  عدد ِ فرساخت   
adad-e farsâxt

Fr.: nombre parfait   

An → integer that is equal to the → sum of its → positive  → divisors, not including itself. For example 6, because its positive divisors are 1, 2, and 3, and 1 + 2 + 3 = 6. Two other examples are 28 and 496.

perfect; → number.

perfect power
  توان ِ فرساخت   
tavân-e farsâxt

Fr.: puissance parfaite   

A → positive integer that can be expressed as an integer → power of another positive → integer. For example, n is a perfect power if there exist natural numbers m> 1, and k> 1 such that mk = n. → perfect cube, → perfect square.

perfect; → power.

perfect set
  هنگرد ِ فرساخت   
hangard-e farsâxt

Fr.: ensemble parfait   

A set P is called perfect if P = P', where P' is the derived set of P.

perfect; → set.

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