An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory



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Number of Results: 712
novinidan (#)

Fr.: moderniser   

To bring something up to modern standards, or adapt it to modern style, conditions, etc.

modern + → -ize.

  واترز، واترزش   
vâtarz, vâtarzeš

Fr.: modification   

An act or instance of modifying; the state of being modified; partial alteration.

Verbal noun of → modify.

modified Julian date (MJD)
  گاهداد ِ ژولی‌ین ِ واترزیده   
gâhdâd-e žulian-e vâtarzidé

Fr.: date julienne modifiée   

A modification of the Julian Date, representing the number of days that have elapsed since midnight (instead of noon) at the beginning of Wednesday November 17, 1858. MJD = JD - 2,400,000.5 The reason for adopting that date is the fact that the Julian Day 2,400,000 just happens to be November 17, 1858.

modify; → Julian date.

MOdified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND)
  توانیک ِ نیوتنی ِ واترزیده   
tavânik-e niyutoni-ye vâtarzidé

Fr.: dynamique newtonienne modifiée   

A modification of the Newton's law of gravitation below a critical acceleration of about 1.2 x 10-8 cm s-2, where the gravitational force scales as 1/r instead of 1/r2. Originally put forward to describe the rotation curves of galaxies with no need to assume any dark matter, MOND is now tested at larger cosmological scales (Milgrom, M. 1983, ApJ, 270, 365).

modify; → Newtonian dynamics.

modified wind momentum
  جنباک ِ باد ِ واترزیده   
jonbâk-e bâd-e vâtarzidé

Fr.: moment angulaire de vent modifié   

A quantity defined as Π = (dM/dt) v R0.5 for a star with radius R having a wind with → terminal velocity v and a → mass loss rate dM/dt. There is a tight linear relation between the modified wind momenta and the stellar luminosities for → Population IO stars. See also → wind momentum.

modify; → wind; → momentum.

  واترزنده، واترزگر   
vâtarzandé, vâtarzgar

Fr.: modificateur   

In data processing, a quantity used to alter an instruction in a prescribed way to produce the instruction actually obeyed.

Agent noun of → modify.


Fr.: modifier   

To change somewhat the form or qualities of; alter partially; amend.
To reduce or lessen in degree or extent; moderate; soften:

From O.Fr. modifier, from L. modificare "to impose a rule or pattern, regulate, restrain," from modus "measure, rhythm, song, manner" PIE base *med-/*met- "to measure, limit, consider, advise, take appropriate measures" + root of facere "to make"

Vâtarzidan, from vâ- prefix denoting "reversal, opposition; separation; repetition; open; off; away" (variant of bâz-, from Mid.Pers. abâz-, apâc-; O.Pers. apa- [pref.] "away, from;" Av. apa- [pref.] "away, from," apaš [adv.] "toward the back;" cf. Skt. ápāñc "situated behind") + tarz "mode, manner" + -idan infinitive suffix.

degarâhangidan (#)

Fr.: moduler   

General: To regulate by or adjust to a certain measure or proportion; tone down. Physics: To alter the value of some parameter characterizing a periodic oscillation. → modulation.

From L. modulatus pr.p. of modulari "to regulate, measure off properly," from modulus "small measure," diminutive of modus "measure, manner," → mode.

Degarâhangidan, from degar "other, another," denoting change, variant digar (Mid.Pers. dit, ditikar "the other, the second;" O.Pers. duvitiya- "second," Av. daibitya-, bitya- "second;" Skt. dvitiya- "second," PIE *duitiio- "second") + âhang "melody, pitch, tune, modulation" (ultimately from Proto-Iranian *āhang-, from prefix ā- + *hang-, from PIE base *sengwh- "to sing, make an incantation;" cf. O.H.G. singan; Ger. singen; Goth. siggwan; Swed. sjunga; O.E. singan "to chant, sing, tell in song;" maybe cognate with Gk. omphe "voice; oracle") + -idan infinitive suffix.

modulated wave
  موج ِ دگر‌آهنگیده   
mowj-e degarâhangidé (#)

Fr.: onde modulée   

A combination of two or more waves resulting in the production of frequencies not present in the original waves, the new frequencies being usually the sums and differences of integral multiples of the frequencies in the original waves.
A wave which varies in some characteristic in accordance with the variations of a modulating signal. Compare continuous wave. See modulation

Modulated, p.p. of → modulate; → wave.

degarâhangeš (#)

Fr.: modulation   

General: The modification of some property of a phenomenon by another distinct phenomenon.
Physics: Variation of some characteristic (amplitude, phase, or frequency) of a radio wave, called the carrier wave, in accordance with instantaneous values of another wave, called the modulating wave. → amplitude modulation; → frequency modulation.
Optics: A synonym for contrast, particularly when applied to a series of parallel lines and spaces imaged by a lens.

Verbal noun of → modulate.

modulation transfer function (MTF)
  کریای ِ تراوژ ِ دگر‌آهنگش   
karyâ-ye tarâvaž-e degarâhangeš

Fr.: fonction de transfert de modulation   

A measure of the ability of an optical system to reproduce (transfer) various levels of detail from the object to the image, as shown by the degree of contrast (modulation) in the image. → optical transfer function.

modulation; → transfer; → function.


Fr.: modulateur   

Any device for effecting the process of modulation.

from L. modulator, from → modulate + -tor a suffix forming personal agent nouns from verbs.

Vâhangâr, from vâhang, → modulation, + -âr, contraction of âvar agent noun of âvardan "to bring; to cause, produce" (Mid.Pers. âwurtan, âvaritan; Av. ābar- "to bring; to possess," from prefix ā- + Av./O.Pers. bar- "to bear, carry," bareθre "to bear (infinitive)," bareθri "a female that bears (children), a mother;" Mod.Pers. bordan "to carry;" Skt. bharati "he carries;" Gk. pherein; L. fero "to carry").

  مدول، ترزول   
modul, tarzul

Fr.: module   

A distinct and separable element of a spacecraft or space station.

From M.Fr. module, from L. modulus "small measure," diminutive of modus "measure, manner," → mode.

Modul, loan as above. Tarzul, from tarzmode + -ul, → -ula.

Modules for Experiments in Stellar Astrophysics (MESA)

Fr.: MESA   

An open-source, one-dimensional astrophysical code which is capable of calculating the evolution of stars in a wide range of environments. It works according to the → Henyey method and uses many modules that deal with various aspects of the theoretical models, such as the → equation of state (EOS), → nuclear reaction networks, → chemical composition, micro-physics, or macro-physics. The EOS and corresponding opacities or nuclear networks are provided in tabulated formats and can be selected by the user, while the micro-physics and macro-physics can be controlled by inlists of relevant parameters and settings (Paxton et al. 2015, ApJS 220, 15 and references therein).

module; → experiment; → stellar; → astrophysics.


Fr.: module   

A real, positive quantity that measures the magnitude of some number. For instance, the modulus of a complex number is the square root of the sum of the squares of its components. Often it means, simply, the numerical ("absolute") value of an algebraic quantity.

From L. modulus, → module.

Peymun, variant of peymâné "a measure either for dry or wet goods; a bushel, cup, bowl," from peymudan, peymâyidan "to measure," from Mid.Pers. patmudan, paymudan "to measure (against)," from *pati-māya-. The first element *pati- "against, back" (cf. Mod.Pers. pâd- "agaist, contrary to;" Mid.Pers. pât-; O.Pers. paity "agaist, back, opposite to, toward, face to face, in front of;" Av. paiti; Skt. práti "toward, against, again, back, in return, opposite;" Pali pati-; Gk. proti, pros "face to face with, toward, in addition to, near;" PIE *proti). The second element from *mā- "to measure;" O.Pers./Av. mā(y)- "to measure;" cf. Skt. mati "measures," matra- "measure;" Gk. metron "measure;" L. metrum; PIE base *me- "to measure." Apart from peymâné, several other terms in Mod.Pers. are related to this second element, which occurs also as mun, mân, man, mâ, mu, and mây: pirâmun "perimeter," âzmun, âzmây- "test, trial," peymân "measuring, agreement," man "a measure weighing forty seers"), nemudan, ne- "to show, display," âdan, âmây- "to prepare."

modulus of rigidity
  پیمون ِ سخت‌پایی   
peymun-e saxtpâyi

Fr.: module de rigidité   

Same as → shear modulus.

modulus; → rigidity.

moli (#)

Fr.: molaire   

Describing a quantity of substance that is proportional to its molecular weight. Relating to a → mole.

mole + → -ar.

molar concentration
  دبزش ِ مولی   
dabzeš-e moli

Fr.: concentration molaire   

Of a gas included in the composition of a → gas mixture, the ratio of the number of moles of this gas to the total number of moles of all the gases in the mixture. Same as mole fraction and mole-fraction concentration.

molar; → concentration.

molar heat capacity
  گنجایش ِ گرمایی ِ مولی   
gonjâyeš-e garmâyi-ye moli

Fr.: capacité thermique molaire   

The → heat capacity of one → mole of substance: Cμ = μ C, where μ is the → molecular weight and C the → specific heat capacity. The molar heat capacity of water is practically 18 cal/mole.C°.

Molar, adj. of → mole; → heat; → capacity.

molar heat of vaporization
  گرمای ِ بخارش ِ مولی   
garmâ-ye boxâreš-e moli

Fr.: chaleur de vaporisation molaire   

The amount of heat energy required to vaporize 1 mole of a liquid at its → boiling point, usually expressed in kJ/mol.

molar; → heat; → vaporization.

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