mowj-e degarâhangidé (#)
Fr.: onde modulée
A combination of two or more waves resulting in the production of
frequencies not present in the original waves, the new frequencies being
usually the sums and differences of integral multiples of the frequencies
in the original waves.
General: The modification of some property of a phenomenon by
another distinct phenomenon.
Verbal noun of → modulate.
modulation transfer function (MTF)
karyâ-ye tarâvaž-e degarâhangeš
Fr.: fonction de transfert de modulation
A measure of the ability of an optical system to reproduce (transfer) various levels of detail from the object to the image, as shown by the degree of contrast (modulation) in the image. → optical transfer function.
Any device for effecting the process of modulation.
from L. modulator, from → modulate + -tor a suffix forming personal agent nouns from verbs.
Vâhangâr, from vâhang, → modulation, + -âr, contraction of âvar agent noun of âvardan "to bring; to cause, produce" (Mid.Pers. âwurtan, âvaritan; Av. ābar- "to bring; to possess," from prefix ā- + Av./O.Pers. bar- "to bear, carry," bareθre "to bear (infinitive)," bareθri "a female that bears (children), a mother;" Mod.Pers. bordan "to carry;" Skt. bharati "he carries;" Gk. pherein; L. fero "to carry").
A distinct and separable element of a spacecraft or space station.
From M.Fr. module, from L. modulus "small measure," diminutive of modus "measure, manner," → mode.
Modules for Experiments in Stellar Astrophysics (MESA)
An open-source, one-dimensional astrophysical code which is capable of calculating the evolution of stars in a wide range of environments. It works according to the → Henyey method and uses many modules that deal with various aspects of the theoretical models, such as the → equation of state (EOS), → nuclear reaction networks, → chemical composition, micro-physics, or macro-physics. The EOS and corresponding opacities or nuclear networks are provided in tabulated formats and can be selected by the user, while the micro-physics and macro-physics can be controlled by inlists of relevant parameters and settings (Paxton et al. 2015, ApJS 220, 15 and references therein).
A real, positive quantity that measures the magnitude of some number. For instance, the modulus of a complex number is the square root of the sum of the squares of its components. Often it means, simply, the numerical ("absolute") value of an algebraic quantity.
From L. modulus, → module.
Peymun, variant of peymâné "a measure either for dry or wet goods; a bushel, cup, bowl," from peymudan, peymâyidan "to measure," from Mid.Pers. patmudan, paymudan "to measure (against)," from *pati-māya-. The first element *pati- "against, back" (cf. Mod.Pers. pâd- "agaist, contrary to;" Mid.Pers. pât-; O.Pers. paity "agaist, back, opposite to, toward, face to face, in front of;" Av. paiti; Skt. práti "toward, against, again, back, in return, opposite;" Pali pati-; Gk. proti, pros "face to face with, toward, in addition to, near;" PIE *proti). The second element from *mā- "to measure;" O.Pers./Av. mā(y)- "to measure;" cf. Skt. mati "measures," matra- "measure;" Gk. metron "measure;" L. metrum; PIE base *me- "to measure." Apart from peymâné, several other terms in Mod.Pers. are related to this second element, which occurs also as mun, mân, man, mâ, mu, and mây: pirâmun "perimeter," âzmun, âzmây- "test, trial," peymân "measuring, agreement," man "a measure weighing forty seers"), nemudan, nemâ- "to show, display," âmâdan, âmây- "to prepare."
modulus of rigidity
Fr.: module de rigidité
Same as → shear modulus.
Describing a quantity of substance that is proportional to its molecular weight. Relating to a → mole.
Fr.: concentration molaire
Of a gas included in the composition of a → gas mixture, the ratio of the number of moles of this gas to the total number of moles of all the gases in the mixture. Same as mole fraction and mole-fraction concentration.
molar heat capacity
gonjâyeš-e garmâyi-ye moli
Fr.: capacité thermique molaire
molar heat of vaporization
garmâ-ye boxâreš-e moli
Fr.: chaleur de vaporisation molaire
The amount of heat energy required to vaporize 1 mole of a liquid at its → boiling point, usually expressed in kJ/mol.
mol, molekul-geram, atom-geram
The → SI unit of amount of → substance; symbol mol. One mole contains exactly 6.022 140 76 × 1023 elementary entities. This number is the fixed numerical value of the → Avogadro constant, NA, when expressed in the unit mol-1.
From Ger. Mole, short for Molekül, from Fr. → molecule.
Of or pertaining to or caused by molecules.
Molekuli, from molekul→ molecule + -i adj. suffix.
bând-e molekuli (#)
Fr.: bande moléculaire
abr-e molekuli (#)
Fr.: nuage moléculaire
A relatively dense, cold region of interstellar matter where the atoms are primarily bound together as molecules rather than free atoms or ionized particles. Molecular clouds represent the coldest and densest phase of the → interstellar medium. They consist primarily of → molecular hydrogen (H2), with temperatures in the range 10-100 K. Molecular hydrogen is not directly observable under most conditions in molecular clouds. Therefore, almost all current knowledge about the properties of molecular clouds has been deduced from observations of molecules such as → carbon monoxide (CO), which have strong emission lines mainly in the → millimeter portion of the → electromagnetic spectrum. So far 129 molecular species have been detected in molecular clouds, among which complex organic molecules. → Dust grains in molecular clouds play a crucial role in the formation of molecules. Molecular clouds are the principal sites where stars form. → giant molecular cloud; → Orion molecular cloud.
Fr.: grumeau moléculaire
One of many compact and dense sub-structures in a → molecular cloud. Their typical sizes are about 0.5-10 → parsecs and their masses range from about 50 to 103 → solar masses. The gas temperatures are about 10-20 K, and the number densities from about 103 to 104 cm-3.
Fr.: émission moléculaire
Fr.: formule moléculaire
The formula of a chemical compound, showing the kind and arrangement of atoms.
hdirožen-e molekuli (#)
Fr.: hydrogène moléculaire
A molecule consisting of two hydrogen atoms (H2) which is the most abundant molecule in the Universe. Molecular hydrogen plays a fundamental role in many astrophysical contexts. It is found in all regions where → self-shielding against the ultraviolet photons, responsible for its → photodissociation, is sufficiently large. Containing two identical hydrogen atoms, H2 is highly symmetric. Due to this property, the molecule has no → dipole moment and all → rotation-vibrational transitions within the electronic → ground state are → quadrupolar with low → spontaneous emission → Einstein coefficient values. The molecule exists in two almost independent states, namely → orthohydrogen and → parahydrogen. H2 may be excited through several mechanisms, including: 1) → far ultraviolet (FUV) induced → optical pumping and → collisional excitation in → photodissociation regions (PDRs) associated with → star formation; 2) → hard X-rays penetrating and heating regions within → molecular clouds, which in turn excite H2 via collisions with electrons or hydrogen atoms; and 3) collisional excitation of H2 due to acceleration produced by interstellar → shock waves. H2 is thought to be chiefly produced via surface reactions on → interstellar grains, but the exact formation mechanism is not fully understood.