An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory



<< < -me mac mag mag mag mag mag maj man Mar mas mas mat mea mea med mem mer Mes met met mic mic Mil min min mit mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul mul mys > >>

Number of Results: 703
major term
  ترم ِ مهین   
tarm-e mehin

Fr.: terme majeur   

Logic: In a → syllogism, the → predicate of the → conclusion which occurs in the → major premise.

major; → term.


Fr.: majorant   

A function, or an element of a set, that dominates others or is greater than all others. In other words, for a function f defined on the interval I, the point M such that for each x on I, f(x)≤ M. See also → minorant.

From Fr. majorant, from majorer "to increase, raise," from L. → major.

Mehân, from mehidan, from meh "great, large," → major.

mehini (#)

Fr.: majorité   

The greater number, part, or quantity of a whole.

major; → -ity.


Fr.: Makemake   

The third largest known → dwarf planet after → Eris and → Pluto. Numbered 136472, and initially called 2005 FYg, it belongs to the → Kuiper belt in the solar system. Discovered in 2005, Makemake is roughly three-quarters of Pluto in size and orbits the Sun in about 310 years.

Named after Makemake "the creator of humanity and god of fertility" in the mythology of the Rapanui, the native people of Easter Island.

Maksutov telescope
  دوربین ِ ماکسوتوف، تلسکوپ ِ ~   
durbin-e Maksutof, teleskop-e ~ (#)

Fr.: télescope de Maksutov   

A → reflecting telescope incorporating a deeply curved → meniscus, → lens, which corrects the → optical aberrations of the spherical → primary mirror to give high-quality → images over a wide → field of view.

Named for the Russian optical specialist Dmitri Maksutov (1896-1964), who developed the design; → telescope.

nar (#)

Fr.: mâle   

1) Belonging to the sex that typically has the capacity to produce gametes, especially spermatozoa which fertilize the eggs of a female.
2) A person, plant, or animal capable of fertilizing.

M.E. male, from O.Fr. malle, masle, from L. masculus "masculine, a male," → maculine.

Nar "male," from Mid.Pers. nar, "male; manly;" Av. nar- "male, man," nairya- "male, manly;" cf. Skt nara- "male, man."

Malmquist bias
  ورک ِ مالمکوییست   
varak-e Malmquist

Fr.: biais de Malmquist   

A selection effect in observational astronomy. If a sample of objects (galaxies, quasars, stars, etc.) is flux-limited, then the observer will see an increase in average luminosity with distance, because the less luminous sources at large distances will not be detected.

Named after the Swedish astronomer Gunnar Malmquist (1893-1982); → bias.

Malmquist correction
  ارشایش ِ مالمکوییست   
aršâyeš-e Malmquist

Fr.: correction de Malmquist   

A correction introduced into star counts distributed by apparent magnitude.

Malmquist bias; → correction.

Malus' law
  قانون ِ مالوس   
qânun-e Malus (#)

Fr.: loi de Malus   

If the light wave entering an → analyzer is → linearly polarized, the intensity of the wave emerging from the analyzer is I = k I0 cos2φ, where k is the coefficient of transmission of the analyzer, I0 is the intensity of the incident light, and φ is the angle between the planes of → polarization of the incident light and the light emerging from the analyzer.

Named after Etienne Louis Malus (1775-1812), French physicist who also discovered polarization by reflection at a glass surface (1808); → law.

Mamun's method
  روش ِ مأمون   
raveš-e M'amun

Fr.: méthod de Mamun   

A method for deriving the Earth's size based on measuring a length of meridian between two points corresponding to the difference between the respective latitudes. The Abbasid caliph al-Ma'mun (ruling from 813 to 833 A.D.), appointed two teams of surveyors to this task. They departed from a place in the desert of Sinjad (nineteen farsangs from Mosul and forty-three from Samarra), heading north and south, respectively. They proceeded until they found that the height of the Sun at noon had increased (or decreased) by one degree compared to that for the starting point. Knowing the variation of the Sun's → declination due to its apparent → annual motion, they could relate the length of the arc of meridian to the difference between the latitudes of the two places. They repeated the measurement a second time, and so found that the length of one degree of latitude is somewhat between 56 and 57 Arabic miles (Biruni, Tahdid). 360 times this number yielded the Earth's circumference, and from it the radius was deduced.
See also: → Eratosthenes' method, → Biruni's method.

The seventh Abbasid caliph Abu Ja'far Abdullâh al-Ma'mûn, son of Hârûn al-Rashîd (786-833 A.D.); → method.

  ۱) مرد؛ ۲) مرتو، انسان   
1) mard; 2) martu, ensân

Fr.: homme   

1) An adult male person.
2) A member of the species Homo sapiens. See also → human, → anthropo-.

M.E., from O.E. man, mann "human being, person" (O.S., O.H.G. man, Ger. Mann, O.N. maðr, Goth. manna "man"), from PIE base *man-; cf. Skt. mánu-, más- "man, person, husband;" Av. manu- in proper noun Manus-ciθra- (Pers. Manucehr); O.C.S. moži, Russ. muž "man, male."

(Mid.Pers./Mod.Pers.) mard "man," mardom "mankind, people," cognate with mordan "to die," → death; Sogd. martu, marti "man, human;" O.Pers. martiya-; Av. marəta- "mortal, man," maša- "mortal;" cf. Skt. márta- "mortal, man;" Gk. emorten "died;" L. mortalis "subject to death;" PIE base *merto-, *morto-. Ensân, loan from Ar.


Fr.: gérer   

To direct or control the use of; to exercise executive, administrative, and supervisory direction of.

Probably from It. maneggiare "to handle, train (a horse)," from L. manus "hand."

Gonârdan, from Mid.Pers vinârtan, variant vinâristan "to organize, arrange, put in order," from vi- "apart, away from" (Av. vi- "apart, away from, out;" O.Pers. viy- "apart, away;" cf. Skt. vi- "apart, asunder, away, out;" L. vitare "to avoid, turn aside") + âristan, ârâstan "to arrange, adorn;" O.Pers. râs- "to be right, straight, true," râsta- "straight, true" (Mod.Pers. râst "straight, true"), râd- "to prepare," Av. râz- "to direct, put in line, set," Av. razan- "order," Gk. oregein "to stretch out," L. regere "to lead straight, guide, rule," p.p. rectus "right, straight," Skt. rji- "to make straight or right, arrange, decorate," PIE base *reg- "move in a straight line."


Fr.: gestion   

The act or manner of managing; handling, direction, or control.

Verbal noun of → manage.

  گنارگر، گنارنده   
gonârgar, gonârandé

Fr.: gestionnaire   

A person who manages; a person who has controls or directs an institution, a team, a division, or part it.

Agent noun of → manage.

Mandelbrot set
  هنگرد ِ ماندلبروت   
hangard-e Mandelbrot

Fr.: ensemble de Mandelbrot   

A set of points in the complex plane, the boundary of which forms a fractal with varying shapes at different magnifications. Mathematically, it is the set of all C values for which the iteration zn+1 = zn2 + C, starting from z0 = 0, does not diverge to infinity.

Discovered by Benoît Mandelbrot (1924-) a Polish-born French mathematician, best known as the "father of fractal geometry;" → set.

mânovr (#)

Fr.: mainoeuvre   

A movement or action to accomplish a change of position.

From Fr. manoeuvre "manipulation, maneuver," from O.Fr. manovre "manual work," from M.L. manuopera, from manuoperare "work with the hands," from L. manu operari, from manu ablative of manus "hand" + operari "to work," → operate.

manganez (#)

Fr.: manganèse   

Metallic chemical element; symbol Mn. Atomic number 25; atomic weight 54.938; melting point about 1,244°C; boiling point about 1,962°C.

The name derives from the Latin magnes for "magnet" since pyrolusite (MnO2) has magnetic properties. It was discovered by the Swedish pharmacist and chemist Carl-Wilhelm Scheele in 1774.

Manganez, loan from Fr.

  ۱) نموسار؛ ۲) نموساردن   
1) nemusâr; 2) nemusârdan

Fr.: 1) manifeste; 2) manifester   

1) Readily perceived by the eye or the understanding; evident; obvious; apparent; plain.
2) To make clear or evident to the eye or the understanding; show plainly (

M.E., from O.Fr. manifest "evident, palpable," or from L. manifestus "plainly apprehensible, clear, apparent, evident;" "proved by direct evidence;" "caught in the act," probably from manus "hand," + -festus "struck; (able to be) seized."

From Torbat-Heydariye-yi nemusâr "evident, conspicuous, visible," from nemu-, nemudan "to show, display" from Mid.Pers. nimūdan, from ne- "down; into;" O.Pers./Av. ni- "down; below; into," → ni-, + mu- (as in âz-mu-dan, â-mu-dan, far-mu-dan, pey-mu-dan, etc.); Av. mā(y)- "to measure," → display, + -sâr a suffix of state, position, similarity.


Fr.: manifestation   

1) An act of manifesting.
2) The state of being manifested.
3) Outward or perceptible indication; materialization.
4. A public demonstration, as for political effect (

Verbal noun of → manifest; → -tion.

baslâ (#)

Fr.: variété   

A → topological space in which every point has a → neighborhood which resembles → Euclidean space (Rn), but in which the global structure may be different. An example of a one-dimensional manifold would be a circle; if you zoom around a point the circle looks locally like a line (R1). An example of a two-dimensional manifold would be a sphere; a small portion looks locally like a plane (R2). See also → flat manifold.

O.E. monigfald (Anglian), manigfeald (W.Saxon) "varied in appearance," from manig "many" + -feald "fold."

Baslâ, from bas "many, much" (Mid.Pers. vas "many, much;" O.Pers. vasiy "at will, greatly, utterly;" Av. varəmi "I wish," vasô, vasə "at one's pleasure or will," from vas- "to will, desire, wish") + "fold."

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