Metallic chemical element; symbol Mn. Atomic number 25; atomic weight 54.938; melting point about 1,244°C; boiling point about 1,962°C.
The name derives from the Latin magnes for "magnet" since pyrolusite (MnO2) has magnetic properties. It was discovered by the Swedish pharmacist and chemist Carl-Wilhelm Scheele in 1774.
Manganez, loan from Fr.
1) nemusâr; 2) nemusârdan
Fr.: 1) manifeste; 2) manifester
1) Readily perceived by the eye or the understanding; evident; obvious; apparent;
M.E., from O.Fr. manifest "evident, palpable," or from L. manifestus "plainly apprehensible, clear, apparent, evident;" "proved by direct evidence;" "caught in the act," probably from manus "hand," + -festus "struck; (able to be) seized."
From Torbat-Heydariye-yi nemusâr "evident, conspicuous, visible," from nemu-, nemudan "to show, display" from Mid.Pers. nimūdan, from ne- "down; into;" O.Pers./Av. ni- "down; below; into," → ni-, + mu- (as in âz-mu-dan, â-mu-dan, far-mu-dan, pey-mu-dan, etc.); Av. mā(y)- "to measure," → display, + -sâr a suffix of state, position, similarity.
1) An act of manifesting.
A → topological space in which every point has a → neighborhood which resembles → Euclidean space (Rn), but in which the global structure may be different. An example of a one-dimensional manifold would be a circle; if you zoom around a point the circle looks locally like a line (R1). An example of a two-dimensional manifold would be a sphere; a small portion looks locally like a plane (R2). See also → flat manifold.
O.E. monigfald (Anglian), manigfeald (W.Saxon) "varied in appearance," from manig "many" + -feald "fold."
Baslâ, from bas "many, much" (Mid.Pers. vas "many, much;" O.Pers. vasiy "at will, greatly, utterly;" Av. varəmi "I wish," vasô, vasə "at one's pleasure or will," from vas- "to will, desire, wish") + lâ "fold."
1) rupuš (#); 2) gušté (#)
O.E. mentel "loose, sleeveless cloak," from L. mantellum "cloak," perhaps from a Celtic source.
1) Rupuš "over-garment, cloak," from ru
"surface, face; aspect; appearance" (Mid.Pers. rôy, rôdh "face;" Av. raoδa-
"growth," in plural form "appearance," from raod- "to grow, sprout, shoot;"
cf. Skt. róha- "rising, height") +
puš "covering, mantle," from
pušidan "to cover; to put on" (Mid.Pers.
pôšidan, pôš- "to cover; to wear;"
cf. Mid.Pers. pôst; Mod.Pers. pust "skin, hide;"
O.Pers. pavastā- "thin clay envelope used to protect unbaked
clay tablets;" Skt. pavásta- "cover," Proto-Indo-Iranian
parâse-ye N jesm
Fr.: problème à N corps
The mathematical problem of solving the equations of motions of any number of bodies which interact gravitationally. More specifically, to find their positions and velocities at any point in the future or the past, given their present positions, masses, and velocities.
1) naqšé; 2) naqšé bardâri kardan
Fr.: 1) carte, plan; 2) cartographier
1a) A representation usually on a flat surface of an area of the Earth or a
portion of the sky, showing them in their respective forms, sizes, and relationships.
Shortening of M.E. mapemounde "map of the world," from M.L. mappa mundi "map of the world," first element from L. mappa "napkin, cloth" (said to be of Punic origin) + L. mundi "of the world," from mundus "universe, world."
Naqšé "map," from naqš "painting, embroidering, carving," variant of negâštan, negâridan "to paint," negâr "picture, figure," → graph.
Fr.: projection cartographique
The theory and method of transforming the features, geometry, and topology on a sphere surface (in particular the spherical Earth) onto a plane.
Any tree of the genus Acer. The maple leaf is an emblem of Canada.
M.E. mapel, O.E. mapul-, related to O.N. möpurr, O.S. mapulder, M.L.G. mapeldorn.
Afrâ, of Tabari origin.
1) naqšé bardâri; 2) hamtâyeš
Fr.: 1) cartographie; 2) application
1) The process of producing a map.
1) Naqšé bardâri;, → map.
A mature female horse or other equine animal.
M.E., variant of mere, O.E. m(i)ere feminine of mearh "horse," (cognates: O.Sax. meriha, O.Norse merr, Du. merrie, O.H.G. meriha, Ger. Mähre "mare"), probably of Gaulish origin (cf. Irish and Gaelic marc, Welsh march, Breton marh "horse").
Mâdiyân, from mâdé "female," → feminine.
Of or pertaining to the sea; produced by the sea.
From M.E. maryne, from M.Fr. marin, from O.Fr. marin "of the sea, maritime," from L. marinus "of the sea," from mare "sea, the sea, seawater," from PIE *mori- "body of water, lake."
Daryâyi "of, or pertaining to the sea," from daryâ, → sea.
1) dâj; 2) dâjidan
Fr.: 1) marque; 2) marquer
1) A visible impression or trace on something, as a line, cut, dent, stain, or bruise
M.E., O.E. mearc, merc "boundary, sign, limit, mark" (cf. O.N. merki "boundary, sign," mörk "forest" (which often marked a frontier); O.Fr. merke, Goth. marka "boundary, frontier," Du. merk "mark, brand," Ger. Mark "boundary, boundary land"), from PIE *merg- "edge, boundary, border;" cf. Pers. marz, → frontier.
Dâj, variants dâq "brand, marking; hot," Hamedâni daj "in harvest, the sign placed on a wheat pile indicating not to be touched," dežan "acid, pungent;" Mid.Pers. dâq, dâk "hot," dažitan "to burn, scorch," dažišn "burning;" Av. dag-, daž- "to burn;" cf. Skt. dah- "to burn;" L. fovere "to warm, heat; " Arm. dažan "violent, wild;" Lith. degu "to burn;" O.E. fefor; E. fever. PIE base *dhegh- "to burn."
Markab (α Pegasi)
A blue star of visual magnitude 2.49, the brightest in the constellation → Pegasus. Markab is a relatively hot star of → spectral type B9, with a total luminosity about 200 times that of the Sun, a surface temperature of about 11,000 K, and a radius 4.3 times solar lying 140 light-years away.
Markab seems to be a corruption of Mankab in the original Ar. name of
this star Mankib al-faras (
kahkešân-e Markarian (#)
Fr.: galaxie de Markarian
A galaxy with abnormally strong emission in the ultraviolet continuum and broad emission lines arising in a bright, semi-stellar nucleus.
Named after B. E. Markarian (1913-1985), an Armenian astronomer who made a catalog of such galaxies (1967-81); → galaxy.
Fr.: chaîne de Markarian
A string of a dozen or so galaxies in the central region of the → Vigo cluster. The chain lies to the right of the cluster's dominant galaxy M87 and extends over nearly 2° on the sky. The chain's brightest galaxies are the lenticulars M84 and M86. At least seven galaxies in the chain appear to move coherently, although others appear to be superposed by chance.
Fr.: les yeux de Markarian
Two → interacting galaxies, NGC 4438 and NGC 4435, located in → Markarian's chain of galaxies in the → Virgo cluster of galaxies. About 50 million → light-years away, the two galaxies are about 100,000 light-years apart. Gravitational → tidal forces from the → close encounter have ripped away at their stars, gas, and dust. The more massive NGC 4438 kept much of the material ripped out in the collision, while material from the smaller NGC 4435 was more easily lost.
1) An object used to indicate a position, place, or route.
zanjire-ye Markov (#)
Fr.: chaîne de Markov
A → stochastic process, based on the classical → random walk concept, in which the probabilities of occurrence of various future states depend only on the previous state of the system and not on any of earlier states. Also called Markov process and Markovian principle.
Named after Andrey Andreyevich Markov (1856-1922), a Russian mathematician, who introduced this model in 1906; → chain.
Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC)
raveš-e Monte Carlo bâ zanjire-ye Markov
Fr.: Méthode de Monte-Carlo par chaînes de Markov
A method for sampling from → probability distributions using → Markov chains. MCMC methods are widely used in data modeling for → Bayesian inference and numerical integration in physics, chemistry, biology, statistics, and computer science.