An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 712
manganese
  منگنز   
manganez (#)

Fr.: manganèse   

Metallic chemical element; symbol Mn. Atomic number 25; atomic weight 54.938; melting point about 1,244°C; boiling point about 1,962°C.

The name derives from the Latin magnes for "magnet" since pyrolusite (MnO2) has magnetic properties. It was discovered by the Swedish pharmacist and chemist Carl-Wilhelm Scheele in 1774.

Manganez, loan from Fr.

manifest
  ۱) نموسار؛ ۲) نموساردن   
1) nemusâr; 2) nemusârdan

Fr.: 1) manifeste; 2) manifester   

1) Readily perceived by the eye or the understanding; evident; obvious; apparent; plain.
2) To make clear or evident to the eye or the understanding; show plainly (Dictionary.com).

M.E., from O.Fr. manifest "evident, palpable," or from L. manifestus "plainly apprehensible, clear, apparent, evident;" "proved by direct evidence;" "caught in the act," probably from manus "hand," + -festus "struck; (able to be) seized."

From Torbat-Heydariye-yi nemusâr "evident, conspicuous, visible," from nemu-, nemudan "to show, display" from Mid.Pers. nimūdan, from ne- "down; into;" O.Pers./Av. ni- "down; below; into," → ni-, + mu- (as in âz-mu-dan, â-mu-dan, far-mu-dan, pey-mu-dan, etc.); Av. mā(y)- "to measure," → display, + -sâr a suffix of state, position, similarity.

manifestation
  نموسارش   
nemusâreš

Fr.: manifestation   

1) An act of manifesting.
2) The state of being manifested.
3) Outward or perceptible indication; materialization.
4. A public demonstration, as for political effect (Dictionary.com).

Verbal noun of → manifest; → -tion.

manifold
  بسلا   
baslâ (#)

Fr.: variété   

A → topological space in which every point has a → neighborhood which resembles → Euclidean space (Rn), but in which the global structure may be different. An example of a one-dimensional manifold would be a circle; if you zoom around a point the circle looks locally like a line (R1). An example of a two-dimensional manifold would be a sphere; a small portion looks locally like a plane (R2). See also → flat manifold.

O.E. monigfald (Anglian), manigfeald (W.Saxon) "varied in appearance," from manig "many" + -feald "fold."

Baslâ, from bas "many, much" (Mid.Pers. vas "many, much;" O.Pers. vasiy "at will, greatly, utterly;" Av. varəmi "I wish," vasô, vasə "at one's pleasure or will," from vas- "to will, desire, wish") + "fold."

mantle
  ۱) روپوش؛ ۲) گوشته   
1) rupuš (#); 2) gušté (#)

Fr.: manteau   

1) General: Something that covers, envelops, or conceals. → grain mantle; → plasma mantle.
2) Geology: → Earth's mantle.

O.E. mentel "loose, sleeveless cloak," from L. mantellum "cloak," perhaps from a Celtic source.

1) Rupuš "over-garment, cloak," from ru "surface, face; aspect; appearance" (Mid.Pers. rôy, rôdh "face;" Av. raoδa- "growth," in plural form "appearance," from raod- "to grow, sprout, shoot;" cf. Skt. róha- "rising, height") + puš "covering, mantle," from pušidan "to cover; to put on" (Mid.Pers. pôšidan, pôš- "to cover; to wear;" cf. Mid.Pers. pôst; Mod.Pers. pust "skin, hide;" O.Pers. pavastā- "thin clay envelope used to protect unbaked clay tablets;" Skt. pavásta- "cover," Proto-Indo-Iranian *pauastā- "cloth").
2) Gušté, from gušt "flesh, meat, pulp of fruit;" Mid.Pers. gôšt "meat;" Av. gah- "to eat;" cf. Skt. ghas- "to eat, devour," ghásati "eats" + nuance suffix .

many-body problem
  پراسه‌ی ِ N جسم   
parâse-ye N jesm

Fr.: problème à N corps   

The mathematical problem of solving the equations of motions of any number of bodies which interact gravitationally. More specifically, to find their positions and velocities at any point in the future or the past, given their present positions, masses, and velocities.

Many, from M.E. mani, meni, O.E. monig, manig; → body; → problem.

map
  ۱) نقشه؛ ۲) نقشه برداری کردن   
1) naqšé; 2) naqšé bardâri kardan

Fr.: 1) carte, plan; 2) cartographier   

1a) A representation usually on a flat surface of an area of the Earth or a portion of the sky, showing them in their respective forms, sizes, and relationships.
1b) Math.: Same as → mapping.
2) To make a map of; show or establish the features of, details of.

Shortening of M.E. mapemounde "map of the world," from M.L. mappa mundi "map of the world," first element from L. mappa "napkin, cloth" (said to be of Punic origin) + L. mundi "of the world," from mundus "universe, world."

Naqšé "map," from naqš "painting, embroidering, carving," variant of negâštan, negâridan "to paint," negâr "picture, figure," → graph.

map projection
  فراشانش ِ نقشه‌نگاری   
farâšâneš-e naqšenegâri

Fr.: projection cartographique   

The theory and method of transforming the features, geometry, and topology on a sphere surface (in particular the spherical Earth) onto a plane.

map; → projection.

maple
  افرا   
afrâ (#)

Fr.: érable   

Any tree of the genus Acer. The maple leaf is an emblem of Canada.

M.E. mapel, O.E. mapul-, related to O.N. möpurr, O.S. mapulder, M.L.G. mapeldorn.

Afrâ, of Tabari origin.

mapping
  ۱) نقشه‌برداری؛ ۲) همتایش   
1) naqšé bardâri; 2) hamtâyeš

Fr.: 1) cartographie; 2) application   

1) The process of producing a map.
2) Math.: The operation of establishing → relations between two → sets in which one element of the second set is assigned to each element of the first set, as the expression y = x2. Same as → function.

Verbal noun from → map + → -ing.

1) Naqšé bardâri;, → map.
2) Hamtâyeš, verbal noun of hamtâyidan literally "folding together, relating units together," from ham- "together," → com-, + "fold, plait, ply; piece, part; single, a single unit of a pair," also a multiplicative suffix; Mid.Pers. tâg "piece, part," + infinitive suffix -idan.

mare
  مادیان   
mâdiyân (#)

Fr.: jument   

A mature female horse or other equine animal.

M.E., variant of mere, O.E. m(i)ere feminine of mearh "horse," (cognates: O.Sax. meriha, O.Norse merr, Du. merrie, O.H.G. meriha, Ger. Mähre "mare"), probably of Gaulish origin (cf. Irish and Gaelic marc, Welsh march, Breton marh "horse").

Mâdiyân, from mâdé "female," → feminine.

marine
  دریایی   
daryâyi (#)

Fr.: marin   

Of or pertaining to the sea; produced by the sea.

From M.E. maryne, from M.Fr. marin, from O.Fr. marin "of the sea, maritime," from L. marinus "of the sea," from mare "sea, the sea, seawater," from PIE *mori- "body of water, lake."

Daryâyi "of, or pertaining to the sea," from daryâ, → sea.

mark
  ۱) داج؛ ۲) داجیدن   
1) dâj; 2) dâjidan

Fr.: 1) marque; 2) marquer   

1) A visible impression or trace on something, as a line, cut, dent, stain, or bruise (Dictionary.com).
2) To put a mark or marks on.

M.E., O.E. mearc, merc "boundary, sign, limit, mark" (cf. O.N. merki "boundary, sign," mörk "forest" (which often marked a frontier); O.Fr. merke, Goth. marka "boundary, frontier," Du. merk "mark, brand," Ger. Mark "boundary, boundary land"), from PIE *merg- "edge, boundary, border;" cf. Pers. marz, → frontier.

Dâj, variants dâq "brand, marking; hot," Hamedâni daj "in harvest, the sign placed on a wheat pile indicating not to be touched," dežan "acid, pungent;" Mid.Pers. dâq, dâk "hot," dažitan "to burn, scorch," dažišn "burning;" Av. dag-, daž- "to burn;" cf. Skt. dah- "to burn;" L. fovere "to warm, heat; " Arm. dažan "violent, wild;" Lith. degu "to burn;" O.E. fefor; E. fever. PIE base *dhegh- "to burn."

Markab (α Pegasi)
  مرکب   
Markab

Fr.: Markab   

A blue star of visual magnitude 2.49, the brightest in the constellation → Pegasus. Markab is a relatively hot star of → spectral type B9, with a total luminosity about 200 times that of the Sun, a surface temperature of about 11,000 K, and a radius 4.3 times solar lying 140 light-years away.

Markab seems to be a corruption of Mankab in the original Ar. name of this star Mankib al-faras (منکب‌الفرس) "the horse's shoulder," from mankib "shoulder" + faras "horse," referring to Pegasus in Gk. mythology.

Markarian galaxy
  کهکشان ِ مارکاریان   
kahkešân-e Markarian (#)

Fr.: galaxie de Markarian   

A galaxy with abnormally strong emission in the ultraviolet continuum and broad emission lines arising in a bright, semi-stellar nucleus.

Named after B. E. Markarian (1913-1985), an Armenian astronomer who made a catalog of such galaxies (1967-81); → galaxy.

Markarian's chain
  زنجیره‌ی ِ مارکاریان   
zanjire-ye Markarian

Fr.: chaîne de Markarian   

A string of a dozen or so galaxies in the central region of the → Vigo cluster. The chain lies to the right of the cluster's dominant galaxy M87 and extends over nearly 2° on the sky. The chain's brightest galaxies are the lenticulars M84 and M86. At least seven galaxies in the chain appear to move coherently, although others appear to be superposed by chance.

Markarian; → chain.

Markarian's eyes
  چشمهای ِ مارکاریان   
cašmhâ-ye Markarian

Fr.: les yeux de Markarian   

Two → interacting galaxies, NGC 4438 and NGC 4435, located in → Markarian's chain of galaxies in the → Virgo cluster of galaxies. About 50 million → light-years away, the two galaxies are about 100,000 light-years apart. Gravitational → tidal forces from the → close encounter have ripped away at their stars, gas, and dust. The more massive NGC 4438 kept much of the material ripped out in the collision, while material from the smaller NGC 4435 was more easily lost.

Markarian galaxy; → eye.

marker
  داجگر، داجنده   
dâjgar, dâjandé

Fr.: marqueur   

1) An object used to indicate a position, place, or route.
2) A distinctive feature or characteristic indicative of a particular quality or condition.
3) Genetics: An allele used to identify a chromosome or to locate other genes on a genetic map (OxfordDictionaries.com).
4) → biomarker.

mark; → -er.

Markov chain
  زنجیره‌ی ِ مارکوف   
zanjire-ye Markov (#)

Fr.: chaîne de Markov   

A → stochastic process, based on the classical → random walk concept, in which the probabilities of occurrence of various future states depend only on the previous state of the system and not on any of earlier states. Also called Markov process and Markovian principle.

Named after Andrey Andreyevich Markov (1856-1922), a Russian mathematician, who introduced this model in 1906; → chain.

Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC)
  روش ِ مونت کارلو با زنجیره‌ی ِ مارکوف   
raveš-e Monte Carlo bâ zanjire-ye Markov

Fr.: Méthode de Monte-Carlo par chaînes de Markov   

A method for sampling from → probability distributions using → Markov chains. MCMC methods are widely used in data modeling for → Bayesian inference and numerical integration in physics, chemistry, biology, statistics, and computer science.

Markov chain; → Monte Carlo Method.

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