An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory



<< < -ph pal pap par par par pas pat pec pen per per per per per pH pha pho pho pho phy pil pla Pla pla pla pla plu poi pol pol pol pol Por pos pot Poy pre pre pre pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro pse pul pup > >>

Number of Results: 1059

Fr.: privilège   

A special right, advantage, or immunity granted or available only to a particular person or group (

M.E., from O.Fr. privilege "right, priority, privilege" and directly from L. privilegium "law applying to one person, bill of law in favor of or against an individual," from privus "individual," → private.

Fardâré, from far- intensive prefix "much, abundant; elegantly," → perfect, + dâr present stem of dâštan "to have, possess," → property, + noun/relation suffix .


Fr.: privilégié   

Having special rights, advantages, or immunities.

Adjective from → privilege.

farâ- (#)

Fr.: pro-   

A prefix of priority in space or time having especially a meaning of advancing or projecting forward or outward.

From L. pro "in favor of, in place of, before, for," also in some cases from cognate Gk. pro "before, in front of," both from PIE base *por- "forward, through;" cf. Pers. farâ-, as below; Gk. para- "from beside, against, beyond;" Goth. faura "before," O.E. fore "before, for, on account of."

Farâ- "forward, along; above, upon, over; before, foremost, opposing, facing," variant far- intensive prefix "much, abundant; elegantly," from Mid.Pers. fra-; O.Pers. fra- "forward, forth;" Av. frā, fərā-, fra- "forward, forth; before; excessive" (fratəma- "first, front," pouruua- "first," fra-cara- "preceding"); cf. Skt. prá- "before; forward, in fron," prathama- "earliest, initial," pūrva- "first;" Gk. pro; L. pro, as above.


Fr.: probabilité   

1) General: The quality or fact of being probable. A strong → likelihood or chance of something.
2) Statistics: The branch of → mathematics that studies the possible outcomes of given events and their relative distributions. → probability theory.

From → probable + → -ity.

probability curve
  خم ِ شوانایی   
xam-e šavânâyi

Fr.: courbe de probabilité   

A curve that describes the distribution of probability over the values of a random variable.

probability; → curve.

probability density function
  کریای ِ چگالی ِ شوانایی   
karyâ-ye cagâli-ye šavânâyi

Fr.: fonction de densité de probabilité   

A mathematical function whose integral over any interval gives the probability that a continuous → random variable has values in this interval. Also known as → density function, frequency function, → probability function.

probability; → density; → function.

probability distribution
  واباژش ِ شوانایی   
vâbâžeš-e šavânâyi

Fr.: distribution de probabilité   

The function that describes the range of possible values that a random variable can attain and the probability that the value of the random variable is within any (measurable) subset of that range.

probability; → distribution.

probability function
  کریای ِ شوانایی   
karyâ-ye šavânâyi

Fr.: fonction de probabilité   

A function that represents a probability distribution in terms of integrals. Also called probability density function or density function.

probability; → function.

probability theory
  نگره‌ی ِ شوانایی   
negare-ye šavânâyi

Fr.: théorie des probabilités   

A branch of → mathematics with its own axioms and methods, which is based on the concept of → randomness and is concerned with the possible outcome of given → events and their relative → likelihoods and → distributions.

probability; → theory.


Fr.: probable   

Likely to happen or to be true; likely but uncertain.

From O.Fr. probable, from L. probabilis "provable," from probare "to try, to test, to prove worthy," from probus "worthy, good, upright, virtuous," from PIE *pro-bhwo- "being in front," from *pro-, extended form of base *per- (cf. Pers. farâ "forward, front"), + base *bhu- "to be" (cf. Pers. budan "to be").

Šavânâ (on the model of tavânâ "able, strong", from tav- "to be able"), from šow- present stem of šodan "to become, to be, to be doing, to go, to pass," from Mid.Pers. šudan, šaw- "to go;" Av. š(ii)auu-, šiyav- "to move, go," šiyavati "goes," šyaoθna- "activity; action; doing, working;" O.Pers. šiyav- "to go forth, set," ašiyavam "I set forth;" cf. Skt. cyu- "to move to and fro, shake about; to stir," cyávate "stirs himself, goes;" Gk. kinein "to move;" Goth. haitan "call, be called;" O.E. hatan "command, call;" PIE base *kei- "to move to and fro."

probable error (PE)
  ایرنگ ِ شوانا   
irang-e šavânâ

Fr.: erreur probable   

A deviation from the population mean μ such that 50% of the observations may be expected to lie between μ - PE and μ + PE. For the normal distribution, the probable error is 0.6745 times the standard deviation.

probable; → error.

  ۱) گمانه؛ ۲) گمانه زدن   
1) gomâné (#); 2) gomâné zadan (#)

Fr.: 1) sonde; 2) sonder   

1) (n.) An exploratory action or device for investigating and obtaining information on a remote region.
Same as → space probe. → lunar probe.
2) (v.) To conduct a thorough investigation of something.
To examine or explore with a probe.

M.L. proba "examination, test," L. probare "to test, prove worthy," from probus "worthy, good, upright."

1) Gomâné "a shaft sunk in order to ascertain the depth of the water when making a subterraneous canal," from Proto-Iranian *vi-mā-, from vi- "apart, away from, out" (cf. Av. vi-; O.Pers. viy- "apart, away;" Skt. vi- "apart, asunder, away, out;" L. vitare "to avoid, turn aside") + mā- "to measure" (cf. O.Pers./Av. mā(y)- "to measure;" Mod.Pers. mâ/mun/mân "measure," as in Pers. terms âz- "to test;" pirâmun "perimeter," âzmun "test, trial," peymân "measuring, agreement," peymâné "a measure; a cup, bowl;" PIE base *me- "to measure;" cf. Skt. mati "measures," matra- "measure;" Gk. metron "measure;" L. metrum).
2) Gomâné zadan composite infinitive of gomân with zadan "to strike, beat; to play an instrument; to do" (Mid.Pers. zatan, žatan; O.Pers./Av. jan-, gan- "to strike, hit, smite, kill" (jantar- "smiter"); cf. Skt. han- "to strike, beat" (hantar- "smiter, killer"); Gk. theinein "to strike;" L. fendere "to strike, push;" Gmc. *gundjo "war, battle;" PIE *gwhen- "to strike, kill").


Fr.: problème   

1) Any question or matter involving doubt, uncertainty, or difficulty.
2) Math.: A statement requiring a solution, usually by means of a mathematical operation or geometric construction.

M.E., from O.Fr. problème, from L. problema, from Gk. problema "a problem, a question," literally "thing put forward," from proballein "to propose," from → pro- "forward" + ballein "to throw," → ballistics.

Parâsé, from pərəs- present tense stem of Av. fras- "to ask, question, inquire," pərəsaiti "asks," to which is related Mod.Pers. pors-, porsidan "to ask;" Mid.Pers. pursidan; O.Pers. fraθ- "to ask, examine, investigate, punish;" Sogd. anfrāsē "question, enquiry;" cf. Skt. prasś- "to ask, long for;" Tokharian prak-/prek- "to ask;" L. prex "request," precor "to ask, to pray;" Lith. prašyti "to ask, to demand;" PIE base *prek- "to ask."

ravand (#)

Fr.: procédure   

An act or a manner of proceeding in any action or process; a particular course or mode of action.

From Fr. procédure "manner of proceeding," from O.Fr. procédér from L. procedere "to go forward, advance," from → pro- "forward" + cedere "to go."

Ravand "going," from raftan "to go, walk;" Mid.Pers. raftan, raw-, Proto-Iranian *rab/f- "to go; to attack."

  ۱) فراروند؛ ۲) آمودن، آماییدن   
1) farâravand (#); 2) âmudan (#), âmâyidan (#)

Fr.: 1) processus; 2) traiter   

1) (n.) A series of actions directed toward a specific aim.
A series of natural occurrences that produce change or development.
2) (v.) To treat or prepare something in a series of steps or actions.

M.E., from O.Fr. proces, from L. processus "advance, progress," from p.p. stem of procedere "go forward," from → pro- "forward" + cedere "to go."

1) Farâravand, from farâ- "forward" → pro- + ravand, contraction of ravandé "goer, going," from raftan "to go, walk;" Mid.Pers. raftan, raw-, Proto-Iranian *rab/f- "to go; to attack."

Note: Another Pers. equivalent for process (n.), coined by the Mosâhab group on the model of the L. concept, is farâyand (فر‌آیند). This dictionary has not retained farâyand, because it is problematic and even contradictory, as first remarked by M.Sch. Adib-Soltani. The process notion denotes a forward motion, composed of two components indicating the same direction "moving forward." In contrast, farâyand implies two opposite, contrary vectors, farâ- "forward" and âyand "coming, comer," from âmadan "to come." In brief, farâyand would mean "coming in front of, before, into the presence, in advance of," while in contrast farâravand means "to go on, to proceed."

2) Âmudan, âmâyidan "to prepare, to fashion; to cause to be made;" from Proto-Iranian *ā-mā-; cf. O.Pers./Av. mā(y)- "to measure;" Mod.Pers. mâ/mun/mân "measure," as in Pers. terms âz- "to test;" pirâmun "perimeter," âzmun "test, trial," peymân "measuring, agreement," peymâné "a measure; a cup, bowl;" PIE base *me- "to measure;" cf. Skt. mati "measures," matra- "measure;" Gk. metron "measure;" L. metrum.


Fr.: traitement   

Performing some predefined sequence of operations on an input to produce an output. → data processing; → image processing .

Noun of the verb → process.


Fr.: procession   

The act of moving along or proceeding in orderly succession or in a formal and ceremonious manner, as a line of people, animals, vehicles, etc (

Verbal noun from → process.

  آماینده، آمایشگر   
âmâyandé, âmâyešgar

Fr.: processeur   

Computers: A central processing unit.
A program that translates another program into a form acceptable by the computer being used. → data processor; → microprocessor

Agent noun of the verb → process.


Fr.: proclamer   

1) To announce or declare in an official or formal manner.
2) To announce or declare in an open or ostentatious way (

pro-; → claim.

Procyon (α CMi)

Fr.: Procyon   

The brightest star in the constellation → Canis Minor. With an → apparent visual magnitude of 0.34, Procyon is the eighth brightest star in the night sky. It is actually a → binary star system, consisting of a white → main sequence star of → spectral type F5 IV-V, named Procyon A, and a faint → DA white dwarf companion, named Procyon B. The distance of the system is 11.46 → light-years and the revolution period about 40 years. Procyon A is of → solar metallicity. It has an → effective temperature of about 6600 K and a mass of 1.43 Msun. The age of the white dwarf is estimated to be 1.7 Giga years. Also called Procyon A, HR 2943, HD 61421 (see Chiavassa et al. 2012, arXiv:1201.3264 and references therein).

Procyon, literally "before the dog," referring to the mythical dog, → Canis Minor, from L. from Gk. prokyon, from → pro- "before" + kyon, kuon "dog;" cognate with Pers. sag, as below.

Farâsag, from farâ- "before," → pro-, + sag "dog;" Mid.Pers. sak/sag Av. spā-; cf. Skt. svā-; Gk. kuon; L. canis (Fr. chien); Arm. šun; O.E. hund; O.H.G. hunt; O.Ir. cu; Welsh ci; Rus. sobaka; PIE *kwon-. In several Pers. dialects this term has conserved its older Av. form with respect to its Modern "official" counterpart: Tâleši, Tâti: espa; štiyâni: esb; Kâšâni, Sorxeyi: esbâ; Lâsgardi: aesbae.

<< < -ph pal pap par par par pas pat pec pen per per per per per pH pha pho pho pho phy pil pla Pla pla pla pla plu poi pol pol pol pol Por pos pot Poy pre pre pre pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro pse pul pup > >>