Fr.: transfert de Hohmann
An → orbital maneuver using two timed engine impulses to move a spacecraft between two coplanar circular orbits. It is performed through an elliptic orbit which is tangent to both circles at their periapses (→ periapsis).
Hohmann transfer orbit
madâr-e tarâvaž-e Hohmann
Fr.: orbite de trandfer
An elliptical orbit that is the most economical path for a spacecraft to take from one planet to another. In the case of Earth-Mars travel, the desired orbit's → perihelion will be at the distance of Earth's orbit, and the → aphelion will be at the distance of Mars' orbit. The portion of the solar orbit that takes the spacecraft from Earth to Mars is called its trajectory. Earth and Mars align properly for a Hohmann transfer once every 26 months. → Hohmann transfer.
Named after Walter Hohmann (1880-1945), German engineer, who developed basic principles and created advanced tools necessary for the conquest of space. In 1925 he published The Attainability of the Heavenly Bodies in which he described the mathematical principles that govern space vehicle motion, in particular spacecraft transfer between two orbits.