Of or relating to citizens and their interrelations with one another or with the state.
M.E., from L. civilis "of or proper to a citizen," from civis "citizen, townsman," from PIE *kei- "to lie, homestead;" → city.
Šârin, from šâr "city," variant šahr; Mid.Pers. šahr "city, country, land" (O.Pers./Av. xšaθra- "kingship, kingdom," (Skt. ksatra-), from xšay-, "to rule;" cf. Skt. ksayati "possesses;" Gk. ktaomai "I acquire," ktema "piece of property") + -in suffix of adjectives, relations and agent nouns (as in qamin "sorrowful," nušin "sweet, agreeable (thing)."
Fr.: temps civil
Fr.: crépuscule civil
The time between sunset or sunrise and the moment when the Sun's center lies 6° below the horizon. It is followed or preceded by → nautical twilight. See also → astronomical twilight. In the morning, this twilight phase ends at sunrise. In the evening it begins at sunset. Civil twilight is the brightest of the three twilight phases. As the Earth's atmosphere scatters and reflects much of the Sun's rays, artificial lighting is generally not required in clear weather conditions to carry out most outdoor activities. Only the brightest stars and planets, like Venus and Jupiter, can be seen with the naked eye.
1) An advanced state of human society, in which a high level of culture,
knowledge, production, and legal organization has been reached.
The people or nations that have reached such a state.
verbal noun of → civilize.
Fr.: 1) civiliser; 2) se civiliser
1) To cause to evolve out of a primitive state as to technical,
moral, or intellectual matters.
1) Of a society or country, having well-organized laws and rules about
way of life.
Past participle of → civilize.