Fr.: poussière circumstellaire
Interstellar → dust grains localized around various types of stars, such as → asymptotic giant branch stars. Circumstellar dust occurs in the form of a spherical shell or a disk and is at the origin of an → infrared excess for the central star. See also → circumstellar matter.
→ circumstellar; → dust.
qobâr-e keyhâni (#), gard-e ~ (#)
Fr.: poussière cosmique
Aggregations of matter on the order of a fraction of a micron across, irregularly shaped, and composed of → carbon and/or → silicates found in the → interstellar medium. Dust absorbs stellar light causing large dark patches in regions of the → Milky Way Galaxy and dark bands across other galaxies.
qobâr(#), gard (#)
Tiny pieces of solid material, such as carbon and silicate grains, in the → interstellar medium that are about 0.1-1.0 micron in size. → Dust grains embedded in → molecular clouds may be significantly larger.
O.E. dust, akin to O.H.G. tunst "storm," from P.Gmc. *dunstaz, from PIE base dhem-/dhemə- "to smoke, to blow," cf. Skt. dhūmá "smoke," Mod.Pers. dam "smoke; to blow, breathe," Av. dāδmainya- "blowing up," Gk. thumiao "to fumigate, burn incense," thymos "spirit, mind, soul," L. fumus "smoke," Ossetic dymyn/dumun "to smoke, blow up," Lith. dumai "smoke."
Qobâr, from Ar.; gard "dust," Mid.Pers. gart, gard.
Fr.: analogue de poussière
A chemical compound produced in laboratory experiments to simulate real → interstellar dust grains and thus study them.
mâseš-e qobâr, roceš-e ~
Fr.: coagulation de la poussière
A process of formation of → dust grains in → interstellar medium and → protoplanetary disks, in which randomly colliding aggregates may stick together.
→ dust; → coagulation.
Fr.: tourbillon de poussière
A small but vigorous → whirlwind, usually of short duration, rendered visible by → dust, → sand, and → debris picked up from the ground (Meteorology Glossary, Amer. Meteo. Soc.). See also → dust storm, → dust whirl.
Fr.: émission des poussières
Thermal emission in infrared from interstellar → dust grains receiving photons. Dust grains absorb ultraviolet and visible light emitted by nearby stars and re-radiate in the infrared wavelengths. Since the infrared light is of lower energy than the ultraviolet/visible light, the difference goes into heating the dust grain. Typical temperatures for interstellar grains are tens of degrees Kelvin.
Fr.: marque de poussière, signature de ~, motif spectral de ~
An emission or absorption mark in the spectrum of an astronomical object, the origin of which is attributed to the presence of dust in the object or on the line of sight.
dâne-ye qobâr (#)
Fr.: grains de poussière
A small, solid flake of → graphite and/or → silicates coated with water ice, found in the → interstellar medium or the → interplanetary medium. Dust grains are irregularly shaped with sizes from microns to Angstroms (→ very small grain; → big grain; → PAH). It is believed that the dust is mainly formed in the cool outer layers of → red giants and dispersed in the interstellar medium. In dense environments, such as → molecular clouds and around → protostars, dust grains grow due to collisions (→ grain growth). Therefore, dust grains in → protostellar disks should be larger than interstellar grains. Dust grains absorb and scatter optical and ultraviolet light and re-radiate in infrared (→ dust emission). Dust acts as a catalyst in the interstellar medium, because molecules form via reactions on the surface of dust grains.
Fr.: bande de poussière
A narrow, elongated structure of absorbing matter seen running over extended emission objects such as nebulae and galaxies.
→ dust; lane, from O.E. lane, lanu "narrow hedged-in road," cf. Du. laan "lane," O.N. lön "row of houses," of unknown origin.
Bâriké "a narrow thing," from bârik "narrow," from Mid.Pers. bārīk "narrow," Av. bāra-, as in tiži.bāra- "sharp-edged," from brāy- "to cut," Mod.Pers. bor-, boridan "to cut;" qobâr→ dust.
Fr.: modèle de poussière
A model of → dust grains conceived to describe the observed → interstellar extinction properties. It is characterized by the abundance of the different → chemical elements locked up in the dust, and by the → composition, → morphology, and → size distribution of its individual grains. For example, → MRN dust model.
tirešod pat qobâr
Fr.: obscurcissement par la poussière
The → absorption of → electromagnetic radiation from an astrophysical object by → dust grains associated with that object.
→ dust; → obscuration.
Tiregi, → obscuration, pat, → by; qobâr, → dust.
parâkaneš-e qobâri, ~ pat qobâr
Fr.: diffusion par la poussière
The scattering of → photons by → dust grains.
→ dust; → scattering.
Fr.: dépose de poussières
A process occurring in → protoplanetary disks whereby relatively large → dust grains settle to the disk midplane. These grains, with sizes from → micron to → millimeter, grow from smaller dust grains and will eventually give rise to a planetary system.
Fr.: tempête de poussière
An unusual, frequently severe weather condition characterized by strong winds and dust-filled air over an extensive area. See also → dust devil, → dust whirl.
donbâle-ye qobâri (#)
Fr.: queue de poussière
The tail of a → comet which is caused by → solar radiation pressure forcing the dust particles away from the → coma in a curved arch. Also called a → Type II tail.
Fr.: température de poussière
An indication of the heat amount received by → dust grains from the ambient → radiation field. Dust temperature depends on the optical properties and → sizes of grains (i.e., on the way they → absorb and → emit radiation) as well as on the → interstellar radiation field. Most of the visible and → ultraviolet radiation in galaxies from stars passes through clouds of particles and heats them. This heating leads to re-radiation at much longer wavelengths extending to the millimeter.
→ dust; → temperature.
Fr.: tourbillon de poussière
A rapidly rotating column of air (whirlwind) over a dry and dusty or shady area, carrying dust, leaves, and other light material picked up from the ground (Meteorology Glossary, Amer. Meteo. Soc.). See also → dust devil, → dust storm.
Fr.: vent induit par poussière
A → stellar wind generated by the action of → radiation pressure on dust grains. This occurs in the case of cool stars, such as → AGB stars, with → effective temperatures below 2500 K when the density is sufficiently large. Since dust is a very good continuum absorber, the dust grains will be radiatively accelerated outward.
rizgard, qobâr-e nâzok
Fr.: poussière fine
Meteorology: An → inhomogeneous → mixture of tiny, part → solid, part → liquid or → gaseous → particles that are, in average, smaller than ten → microns. The constituents are soot, heavy metals, organic substances, and dioxins. The smaller these dust particles, the deeper they penetrate into the lung. Larger particles are intercepted by mucous membrane in nose, mouth, and throat but smaller particles can penetrate the smallest lung bronchioles and may cause severe damage (various respiratory disorders, lung cancer) → particulate matter.