An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory



Number of Results: 9 Search : oxide
carbon dioxide
  دی‌اکسید ِ کربون، گاز کربونیک   
dioksid-e karbon, gâz karbonik (#)

Fr.: dioxyde de carbone   

CO2, also called carbonic acid gas. A colorless gas which occurs in the atmosphere playing an essential part in animal respiration and the growth of green plants. → photosynthesis, → carbon cycle. It is formed by the → oxidation of carbon and carbon compounds. Carbon dioxide is the most important → greenhouse gas produced by human activities, primarily through the combustion of fossil fuels. Its concentration in the Earth's atmosphere has risen by more than 30% since the Industrial Revolution. CO2 forms a solid at -78.5 °C at atmospheric pressure, and is used as a refrigerant in this form as a dry ice for the preservation of frozen foods. As carbon dioxide gas is heavier than air and does not support combustion, it is used in fire extinguishers.
CO2 is present in the → interstellar medium and is one of the main → molecules in → comets.

carbon; → dioxide.

carbon monoxide (CO)
  مونوکسید ِ کربون   
monoksid-e karbon (#)

Fr.: monoxyde de carbone   

A colorless, odorless, very poisonous gas which burns in air with a bright blue flame to form → carbon dioxide. CO gives rise to a violent explosion when ignited in air in certain proportions. It occurs in coal gas and in the exhaust fumes of motor engines. Melting point -207 °C; boiling point -191.1 °C.
Carbon monoxide is the most important → molecule found in the → interstellar medium, and is produced through several chemical reactions, → CO formation. It was discovered in 1970 by R. Wilson and A. Penzias of Bell Laboratories, using the 11-m telescope of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in the direction of the → Orion nebula. Because the CO line is so intense and widely distributed in space, this molecule is a most useful tool for tracing the ISM. In addition, measurement of its rare isotopes have shown that the main line 12C16O (wavelength 2.6 mm, 115 GHz) is → optically thick, that is the → column density of the molecule is so high that the material becomes opaque at the transition frequency. Moreover, the upper-energy levels of the CO molecule are easily excited by collision with → molecular hydrogen. The combination of high → optical depth and the ease of → excitation imply that CO emission brightness will accurately reflect the local gas temperature. CO is also one of the principal molecules detected in → comet nuclei.

carbon; → mono-; → oxide.


Fr.: dioxyde   

Any → oxide containing two → atoms of → oxygen the → molecule.

di-; → oxide.

hidroksid (#)

Fr.: hydroxide   

A diatomic ion containing one oxygen and one hydrogen atom with chemical formula OH-.

hydr-; → oxide.

  ا ُکسید   
oksid (#)

Fr.: oxyde   

A compound of → oxygen and another → chemical element.

From Fr. oxyde, from oxygène, → oxygen and acide, → acid.

titanium oxide, TiO
  اکسید ِ تیتان   
oksid-e titân

Fr.: oxide de titane   

A → diatomic molecule made up of → titanium and → oxygen atoms. See → TiO band.

titanium; → band.

uranium dioxide
  دی‌اکسید ِ اورانیوم   
dioksid-e urâniyom

Fr.: dioxyde d'uranium   

A black crystalline solid (UO2pitchblende, carnotite, and autunite and is used chiefly as a source of nuclear energy by fission of the radioisotope uranium-235. After the → uranium hexafluoride is enriched, a fuel fabricator converts it into uranium dioxide powder and presses the powder into fuel pellets.

uranium; → dioxide.

uranium oxide
  اکسید ِ اورانیوم   
oksid-e urâniyom

Fr.: oxyde d'uranium   

A chemical compound made up of → uranium and → oxygen. The most common forms of uranium oxide are U3O8 and UO2. Both oxide forms are solids that have low solubility in water and are relatively stable over a wide range of environmental conditions. Triuranium octaoxide (U3O8) is the most stable form of uranium and is the form most commonly found in nature. → Uranium dioxide (UO2) is the form in which uranium is most commonly used as a → nuclear reactor fuel. At ambient temperatures, UO2 will gradually convert to U3O8.

uranium; → oxide.

zirconium oxide, ZrO
  اکسید ِ زیرکونیوم   
oksid-e zirkoniom

Fr.: oxide de zirconium   

A → diatomic molecule made up of → zirconium and → oxygen atoms. See → ZrO band.

zirconium; → band.