An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory



Number of Results: 15 Search : prism
angle of prism
  زاویه‌ی ِ منشور   
zâviye-ye manšur

Fr.: angle de prisme   

prism angle.

angle; → prism.

Cornu prism
  منشور ِ کورنو   
manšur-s Cornu (#)

Fr.: prisme de Cornu   

A combination of two 30° prisms, one of left-handed quartz and the other of right-handed quartz. The prisms are cemented together in order to get a 60° prism. The device will correct for light rotation and will transmit the beam in a straight direction. The Cornu prism has good ultraviolet transmitting qualities and no → double refraction.

Cornu's spiral; → prism.

Fresnel's biprism
  دومنشور ِ فرنل   
domanšur-e Fresnel (#)

Fr.: biprisme de Fresnel   

An optical element consisting of two small angle → prisms, joined together at their bases, used to produce two → coherent sources. The thin double prism refracts the light from a source into two overlapping beams, which produce → interference fringes. With this experiment Fresnel was able to produce interference without relying upon → diffraction to bring the interfering beams together.

Fresnel diffraction; → bi-; → prism.

Littrow prism
  منشور ِ لیترو   
manšur-e Littrow

Fr.: prisme de Littrow   

A prism having angles of 30, 60, and 90°, which uses the same face for input and dispersed radiation. The beam is reflected at the face opposite to the 60° angle because it is coated to be highly reflecting. A beam entering at the → Brewster angle undergoes minimum deviation and hence maximum dispersion. Littrow prisms are used in laser cavities to fine tune lasers by selection of wavelength.

Joseph Johann Littrow (1781-1840), Austrian astronomer; → prism.

Nicol prism
  منشور ِ نیکول   
manšur-e Nicol (#)

Fr.: prisme de Nicol   

Optical device constructed from a crystal of calcite, used for obtaining plane polarized light.

Named after John Pringle Nicol (1804-1859), British physicist; → prism.

objective prism
  منشور ِ بر‌آختی   
manšur-e barâxti

Fr.: prisme-objectif   

A dispersing prism placed in front of a telescope objective to produce spectra of all luminous objects in the field of view.

objective; → prism.

polarizing prism
  منشور ِ قطبنده   
manšur-e qotbandé

Fr.: prisme polarisant   

A prism that is used to produce or analyze plane-polarized light.

Polarizing, adj. of → polarize; → prism.

manšur (#)

Fr.: prisme   

Optics: A transparent solid body, having at least two polished plane faces inclined relative to each other, from which light is reflected or through which light is refracted.
Geometry: A solid having two faces lying in parallel planes and with the other faces parallelograms.

L.L. prisma, from Gk. prisma, literally "something sawed," from prizein "to saw."

Manšur, etymology not clear, may be related to Ar. mawšur "prism," of unknown origin.

prism angle
  زاویه‌ی ِ منشور   
zâviye-ye manšur

Fr.: angle de prisme   

The angle between the faces on which light is incident and from which it emerges.

prism; → angle.

prism binoculars
  دوچشمی ِ منشوری، ~ منشوردار   
docešmi-ye manšuri, ~ manšurdâr

Fr.: jumelles à prismes   

An optical device consisting of a pair of small telescopes mounted side by side, each telescope having two prisms between the eyepiece and objective for erecting the image.

prism; → binoculars.

prism ocular
  چشمی ِ منشوری، ~ منشوردار   
caši-ye manšuri, ~ manšurdâr

Fr.: prisme oculaire   

An ocular equipped with a prism that forms an upright image in an astronomical telescope.

prism; → ocular.

prismatic astrolabe
  اسطرلاب ِ منشوری   
ostorlâb-e manšuri

Fr.: astrolabe à prisme   

An instrument used to determine the precise timing of a star's passage across a vertical circle. It is used for making precise determinations of the positions of stars and planets, and can be used inversely to determine the latitude and longitude of the observer, assuming the star positions are accurately known. It consists of an accurate prism, a small pool of mercury to serve as an artificial horizon. The most notable example of this type of instrument is that of → Danjon astrolabe.

Adj. of → prism + → astrolabe.

prismatic spectrum
  بیناب ِ منشوری   
binâb-e manšuri

Fr.: spectre prismatique   

The spectrum formed by a dispersing prism or a dispersing prism system.

Adj. of → prism + → spectrum.

refracting prism
  منشور ِ شکست‌گر   
manšur-e šekastgar (#)

Fr.: prisme réfractant   

A prism that is used as a dispersing element in a spectrograph.

refracting; → prism.

Wollaston prism
  منشور ِ وُلاستون   
manšur-e Wollaston (#)

Fr.: prisme de Wollaston   

An optical device for producing and analyzing polarized light. It divides incoming unpolarized light into two orthogonal, linearly polarized beams. It consists of two prisms of either quartz or calcite cemented together.

After the English scientist William Hyde Wollaston (1766-1828); → prism.