An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory



Number of Results: 10 Search : sum
  آگربیدن، فرض کردن، فرضیدن   
âgarbidan, farz kardan, farzidan (#)

Fr.: supposer   

To take as granted or true; suppose.

M.E., from L. assumere "to take up," from ad- "to, up" + sumere "to take," from sub "under" + emere "to take."

Âgarbidan, from âgarb, → assumption.

  آگرب، فرض   
âgarb, farz (#)

Fr.: supposition   

A fact or statement (as a proposition, axiom, postulate, or notion) taken for granted.

M.E., from L.L. assumption, assumptio "taking up," from L. assumere, → assume.

Âgarb, from â-, nuance prefix, + garb, from Av./O.Pers. grab-, Av. gərəb- "to take, to seize;" cf. Mod.Pers. gereftan "to take; to assume;" Skt. grah-, grabh- "to seize, to take," graha "seizing, holding, perceiving;" M.L.G. grabben "to grab;" E. grab "to take or grasp suddenly;" PIE *ghrebh- "to seize."
Ar. farz "assumption, hypothesis."

gosârdan (#)

Fr.: consommer   

1) To use up, spend. See also → expend.
2) To eat or drink.

M.E., from O.Fr. consumer "to consume" and directly from L. consumere "to use up, eat, waste," from → com-, intensive prefix, + sumere "to take," from → sub- "under" + emere "to buy, take," from PIE root *em- "to take, distribute;" cf. Skt. yam- "to hold," Av. yam- "to hold, keep," → expend.

Gosârdan "to consume, drink; dissipate, wipe out; let go," probably from Proto-Ir. *ui-sard-, from *sard- "to smear, rub;" cf. Khotanese (+*ā-) esaly "to besmear;" Kurd. sirīn "to wipe," sirewe "to wipe out, erase;" Oss. særdyn "to smear."


Fr.: consommation   

1) The act of consuming.
2) The amount consumed.

Verbal noun of → consume.

  ۱) بزاو؛ ۲) بزاویدن   
1) bazâv; 2) bazâvidan

Fr.: 1) somme; 2) sommer   

1a) Math.: The number or quantity that is the result of adding two or more numbers or quantities.
1b) A particular amount or total, especially of money.
2a) To combine into an aggregate or total (often followed by up).
2b) To ascertain the sum of, as by addition (

M.E. summe, from O.Fr. summe, from L. summa "total number, whole, essence, gist," noun use of feminine of summus "highest," superlative of superus, → super-.

Bazâv, from Mid.Pers. abzây-, abzudan (Mod.Pers. afzâ-, afzudan) "to increase;" Parthian abigâw- "to increase;" Sogd. β(ə)žāw "to grow, increase;" O.Pers. abiyajāv- "to increase, add to, promote," from abi-, aiby- "in addition to; to; against" + root jav- "press forward;" Av. gu- "to increase;" Khotanese gvāna- "growth;" Skt. jav- "to press forward, impel quickly, excite," javate "hastens").


Fr.: résumer   

To make a summary of; state or express in a concise form.

summary + → -ize.


Fr.: résumé   

1) A brief account giving the main points of something.
2) Covering the main points; comprehensive.

From L. summarium "an epitome, abstract, summary," from summa "totality, gist," → sum, + → -ary.

Bazâvak, from bazâv, present stem of bazâvidan, → sum, + -ak relation suffix.

tâbestân (#)

Fr.: été   

The season that starts when the Sun, during its apparent yearly motion, attains the celestial longitude 90 degrees in the Northern Hemisphere and 270 degrees in the Southern Hemisphere. The current length of the summer season, around the epoch 2000, is 93.65 days.

M.E. sumer, from O.E. sumor (cf. O.S., O.N., O.H.G. sumar, O.Fris. sumur, M.Du. somer, Du. zomer, Ger. Sommer), from PIE base *sem- "summer;" cf. Av. ham- "summer;" Mid.Pers. hāin "summer;" Skt. sámā- "half-year, season;" Arm. am "year," amarn "summer;" O.Ir. sam "summer;" O.Welsh ham "summer."

From Mid.Pers. tâpistân, ultimately from Proto-Iranain *tap-stā- "hot, heat season, time, place." The first component *tap- "to shine, radiate;" cf. Mod.Pers. tâbidan, variants tâftban "to shine," tafsidan "to become hot;" Mid.Pers. tâftan "to heat, burn, shine;" taftan "to become hot;" Parthian t'b "to shine;" Av. tāp-, taf- "to warm up, heat," tafsat "became hot," tāpaiieiti "to create warmth;" cf. Skt. tap- "to heat, be/become hot; to spoil, injure, damage; to suffer," tapati "burns;" L. tepere "to be warm," tepidus "warm;" PIE base *tep- "to be warm."
The second component *stā- "to stand; to set; to place;" a suffix of "place, land, country" and in rare cases "time;" examples: لرستان "Lorestân;" کردستان "Kurdestân;" افغانستان "Afghanistan;" ترکستان "Turkistan;" پاکستان "Pakistan;" انگلستان "England;" لهستان "Poland;" کوهستان "kuhestân = mountaneous region, highland;" تابستان "summer;" زمستان "winter." From Mid.Pers. -stân, -istân. Examples: gôstân (گاوستان) "cowshed;" šapistân (شبستان) "dormitory;" tâpistân "summer;" zamistân "winter." From O.Pers. stāna- "place;" Av. stāna-, as in gaostāna- (Mid.Pers. gôstân, as above) "cowshed;" from Proto-Iranian *stāna-. This suffix is related to O.Pers./Av. base sta- "to stand;" Mod.Pers. istâdan (ایستادن) "to stand;" cf. Skt. sthā- "to stand," sthāna- "standing;" Gk. histemi "to put, place," stasis "standing still;" L. stare "to stand;" Goth. standan; O.H.G. stantan; O.E. standan; E. stand; PIE base *sta- "to stand."

summer solstice
  خوریستان ِ تابستانی   
xoristân-e tâbestâni

Fr.: solstice d'été   

The moment in the northern hemisphere when the → Sun attains its highest → declination of 23°26' (or 23°.44) with respect the → equator plane. It happens when the Earth's axis is orientated directly toward the Sun, on 21 or 22 June. During the northern solstice the Sun appears to be directly overhead at noon for places situated at → latitude 23.44 degrees north, known as the → tropic of Cancer. The summer solstice can occur at any moment during the day. Two successive summer solstices are shifted in time by about 6 h. The summer solstice in the northern hemisphere is the → winter solstice in the southern hemisphere.

summer; → solstice.

summer triangle
  سه‌بر ِ تابستانی   
sebar-e tâbestâni

Fr.: triangle d'été   

The triangular shape formed by the three bright stars → Altair, → Deneb, and → Vega on the northern hemisphere's → celestial sphere, particularly visible during the summer months.

summer; → triangle.