binary supermassive black hole
siyah-câl-e abar-porjerm-e dorin
Fr.: trou noir supermassif double
A → dual supermassive black hole whose components are separated by a few parsecs.
→ binary; → supermassive; → black; → hole.
Fr.: supergéante bleue
An evolved star of spectral type O, B, or A; e.g. → Rigel, → Deneb.
→ blue; → supergiant.
Fr.: superamas du Centaur
The nearest large → supercluster. It is dominated by the → galaxy cluster A3526 (→ Abell catalog). The Centaurus supercluster is a long structure that stretches away from us. The most distant of the clusters, A3581, is about 300 million → light-years away.
abar-novâ-ye rombeš-e maqzé, abar-now-axtar-e ~ ~
Fr.: supernova à effondrement de coeur
A supernova arising from the → core collapse of a → massive star. Same as → Type Ib, → Type Ic, or → Type II supernova.
delayed supernova explosion
oskaft-e bâderang-e abar-novâ, ~ ~ abar-now-axtar
Fr.: explosion retardée de supernova
A mechanism predicted by theoretical models of → supernova explosion that operates after the → supernova shock fails to deliver a → prompt supernova explosion. The delayed supernova explosion mechanism assumes that a few tenth of a second after the → iron core collapse, the supernova shock is stalled due to energy dissipation. The material between the → protoneutron star and the stalled shock is mainly disintegrated into neutrons and protons due to the high temperatures (a few MeV) in this region. As the → neutrinos coming from the protoneutron star run through this material, a fraction of the neutrinos are captured by the → nucleons, and their energy is deposited in the material. As a result, the material behind the shock is heated by the neutrinos. If this neutrino heating is efficient enough, the stalled shock can be reinvigorated to bring about a supernova explosion.
dual supermassive black hole
siyah-câl-e abar-porjerm-e dogâné
Fr.: trou noir supermassif double
The outcome of a → merger process between two galaxies, each with its own central → supermassive black hole (SMBH), resulting in a remnant galaxy hosting two SMBHs. Simulations of → galaxy mergers show there should be lots of dual → active galactic nuclei (AGN) visible at less than 10 kpc separations. As of 2015 more than 100 known dual supermassive black holes have been found. See also → binary supermassive black hole.
→ dual; → supermassive; → black; → hole.
full super Moon
abar pormâng, abar pormâh
Fr.: pleine lune de périgée
Same as → perigee full Moon.
abar-novâ-ye târixi, abar-now-axtar-e ~ (#)
Fr.: supernova historique
A supernova event recorded in the course of history before the invention of the telescope. The well recorded supernovae of this small group are SN 185, SN 1006, SN 1054 (→ Crab Nebula), SN 1181, SN 1572 (→ Tycho's star), and SN 1604 (→ Kepler's star).
→ historical; → supernova.
Fr.: superamas Laniakea
A → supercluster of galaxies that includes our → Local Group and about 300 to 500 known → galaxy clusters and groups. Also called → Local Supercluster. If approximated as round, it has a diameter of 12,000 km s-1 in units of the → cosmic expansion or 160 megaparsecs, and encompasses about 1017 → solar masses. Our Local Group lies toward the outer regions of Laniakea. Its main components are the four previously known superclusters: → Virgo supercluster (the part where the → Milky Way resides), Hydra-Centaurus Supercluster (including the → Great Attractor, Antlia Wall, known as Hydra Supercluster, → Centaurus supercluster), Pavo-Indus Supercluster, and Southern Supercluster (including Fornax Cluster, Dorado and Eridanus clouds). The most massive galaxy clusters of Laniakea are Virgo, Hydra, Centaurus, Abell 3565, Abell 3574, Abell 3521, Fornax, Eridanus, and Norma. The Laniakea supercluster was discovered by Tully et al. (2014, Nature 513, 71).
From the Hawaiian words lani "heaven," and akea "spacious, immeasurable;" → supercluster.
abarxuše-ye mahali (#)
Fr.: superamas local
The supercluster to which the Local Group belongs. It is composed of some 100 clusters of galaxies, with the Virgo cluster of galaxies at its center.
→ local; → supercluster.
abar-novâ-ye nâpâydâri-ye joft, abar-now-axtar-e ~ ~
Fr.: supernova à instabilité de paires
A special type of → supernova that would result from the → pair instability in → supermassive stars with a mass range between 140 and 260 Msun in a low → metallicity environment. Such objects descended from the → Population III stars in the early history of the Universe. Such supernovae are the most powerful thermonuclear explosions in the Universe. Pair-instability supernovae may have played an important role in the synthesis of → heavy elements. Moreover, the energetic feedback of the processed elements to their surroundings could have affected the structure and evolution of the early Universe (See, e.g., Fryer et al. 2001, ApJ 550, 372; Heger & Woosley 2002, ApJ 567, 532). See also → pulsational pair-instability supernova.
→ pair; → instability; → supernova.
periodically variable supergiant (PVSG)
abarqul-e vartande-ye dowreyi
Fr.: supergÃ©ante variable pÃ©riodiquement
A variable → supergiant star with typical periods of the order of 10 to 100 days and amplitudes less than a few tenths of a magnitude. PVSGs are thought to be pulsating → g modes, caused by a density inversion, arising from an → opacity bump, most likely from Fe, H, and/or He.
→ periodical; → -ly; → variable; → supergiant.
Fr.: superamas de Persée-Poissons
A long, dense chain of galaxies with a length of almost 300 million → light-years, constituting one of the largest known structures in the → Universe. At the left end of the supercluster lies the massive → Perseus cluster (A426), one of the most massive clusters of galaxies within 500 million light-years.
prompt supernova explosion
oskaft-e tond-e abar-now-axtar, ~ biderang-e ~
Fr.: explosion rapide de supernova
A mechanism predicted by theoretical models of → supernova explosion in the case when the → supernova shock breaks through the outer edge of the collapsing → iron core before losing all of its energy (through → photodisintegration of the iron nuclei) and manages to expel the stellar envelope. Compare with → delayed supernova explosion.
pulsational pair-instability supernova
abar-novâ-ye nâpâydâri-ye tapeši-ye joft, abar-now-axtar-e ~ ~ ~
Fr.: supernova à instabilité pulsationnelle de paires
A → supernova resulting from the → pair instability that generates several successive explosions. According to models, a first pulse ejects many solar masses of hydrogen layers as a shell. After the first explosion, the remaining core contracts and searches for a stable burning state. When the next explosion occurs a few years later, several solar masses of material are again ejected, which collide with the earlier ejecta. This collision can radiate 1050 erg of light, about a factor of ten more than an ordinary → core-collapse supernova. After each pulse, the remaining core contracts, radiates neutrinos and light, and searches again for a stable burning state. Later ejections have lower mass, but have higher energy. They quickly catch up with the first shell, where the collision dissipates most of their kinetic energy as radiation. The first SNe from → Population III stars are likely due to pulsational pair instability (Woosley et al. 2007, Nature 450, 390). See also → pair-instability supernova.
→ pulsational; → pair; → instability.
abarqul-e sorx (#)
Fr.: supergéante rouge
A supergiant star with spectral type K or M. Red supergiants are the largest stars in the Universe, but not necessarily the most massive. Betelgeuse and Antares are the best known examples of a red supergiant.
→ red; → supergiant.
Fr.: superamas de Shapley
The richest → supercluster of galaxies in the nearby → Universe at a → redshift going from z ~0.03 to z ~0.05 (680 million → light-years), and extending over several square degrees on the plane of the sky. It lies behind the → Centaurus supercluster. Also called the Shapley concentration, it is made up of 25 → galaxy clusters with a total mass of about 1016→ solar masses. At the core of the Shapley supercluster is a remarkable complex formed by several rich clusters of galaxies from the → Abell catalog; the central and most massive of them is A3558.
Fr.: pleine lune de périgée
Same as → perigee full Moon.
super star cluster (SSC)
Fr.: super amas stellaire
A group of hundreds to thousands of very young stars packed into an unbelievably small volume of a few parsecs in size. These objects represent the youngest stage of → massive star cluster evolution yet observed. The most massive and dense SSCs, with ages less than 106 years, may be proto globular clusters. SSCs are thought to dissolve within 10 million years and merge into the field star population.
A prefix occurring originally in loanwords from Latin, with the basic meaning "above, beyond."
L. adverb and preposition super "above, over, on the top (of), beyond, besides, in addition to," from PIE base *uper "over," cognate with Pers. abar-, as below.
Mid.Pers. abar (Mod.Pers. bar- "on, upon, up"); O.Pers. upariy "above; over, upon, according to;" Av. upairi "above, over," upairi.zəma- "located above the earth;" cf. Gk. hyper- "over, above;" L. super-, as above; O.H.G. ubir "over."