axiom of constraints
Fr.: axiome des contraintes
An axiom in → statics, stating that any → constrained body can be treated as a → free body detached from its → constraints, provided the latter are represented by their → reactions.
→ axiom; → constraint.
pâvandidan, pâvand kardan
To confine forcibly, as by bonds; to force, compel, or oblige; to repress or restrain. → constrained body, → constrained system.
Fr.: corps lié
A → rigid body whose displacement is prevented because it is under → constraint or a body that can move only in certain directions. Contrasted with → free body.
Fr.: système contraint
Opposite of a → free system. See also → constraint.
1) General: Limitation or restriction.
M.E. constreinte, from M.F., from constreindre, from L. constringere "to bind together, tie tightly," from → com- "together" + stringere "to bind, draw tight."
Pâvand "fetter, shackle," from pâ "foot" (Mid.Pers. pâd, pây; Khotanese fad; Av. pad-; cf. Skt. pat-, Gk. pos, genitive podos; L. pes, genitive pedis; P.Gmc. *fot, E. foot, Ger. Fuss, Fr. pied; PIE *pod-/*ped-) + vand, variant band "tie, band," (Mod.-Mid./Pers. bastan/vastan "to bind, shut," Av./O.Pers. band- "to bind, fetter," banda- "band, tie," Skt. bandh- "to bind, tie, fasten," PIE *bhendh- "to bind," cf. Ger. binden, E. bind).
To hold back from action; keep in check; repress; to limit or hamper the activity, or effect of.
M.E. restreynen, from O.Fr. restreindre "press, push together; curb, bridle;" from L. restringere "to draw back tightly, confine," from → re- "back" + stringere "draw tight," → strain.
Bâzdâštan, from bâz- prefix denoting "reversal, opposition," → re-, + dâštan "to hold," → property.
Change of volume and/or shape of a body, or part of a body, due to an applied → stress. When a body is deformed by such a force, through compression or distension, the strain is the ratio of the dimensional change to the original or un-strained dimension. The strain may be a ratio of lengths, areas, or volumes. See also → shear.
M.E. streinen (v.), from O.Fr. estreindre "to bind tightly, clasp, squeeze," from L. stringere "to bind or draw tight," from PIE base *strenk- "tight, narrow; pull tight, twist;" cf. Gk. strangein "twist;" Lith. stregti "congeal;" O.H.G. strician "mends nets;" Ger. stramm, Du. stram "stiff."
Šepil "squeeze; fondness" (Dehxodâ) of unknown origin.
qatâr (#), teran (#)
1) A series or sequence of objects or events.
M.E., from O.Fr. train "tracks, path, trail; act of dragging," from trainer "to pull, drag, draw," from V.L. *traginare, from *tragere "to pull," back-formation from tractus, p.p. of L. trahere "to pull, draw."
Qatâr "a row of camels," loan from Ar.; teran, loan from Fr., as above.
qatâr-e mowj (#), mowj-teran
Fr.: train d'onde
A series of successive waves spaced at regular intervals.