An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory



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Number of Results: 21 Search : counter
close encounter
  رویارویی ِ کیپ   
ruyâruyi-ye kip

Fr.: rencontre proche   

1) In a → star cluster, coming across of two stars so closely that their → orbits alter by their mutual → gravitational attractions.
2) As regards an → asteroid or → comet, a situation when it crosses the Moon's orbit and approaches the Earth with a risk of collision. See also → close approach, → encounter.

close; → encounter.

šomârgar (#)

Fr.: compteur   

Generally,a device for indicating a number or amount.
Any of various instruments for detecting ionizing radiation and for registering counts. → Geiger counter.

M.E. countour, from O.Fr. conteor, from L. computator, from computa(re) "to compute" + → -tor suffix forming personal agent nouns mainly from verbs.

Šomârgar, from šomâr present tense stem of šomârdan "to count," → count + agent suffix -gar.

pâd- (#)

Fr.: contre-   

A prefix used with the meanings "against, contrary, opposite." → contra-.

M.E. countre-, from O.Fr. contre-, from L. contra "opposite, against;" PIE base *kom- "beside, near, by, with."

Pâd- "contrary to; against; opposing," variants pâ- (pâsox, pâzahr, pâhang, → response), paž- (pažvâk, → echo, pažâvand "the bar of a door or a gate, door lock"), baž- (bažkam, → forbidden), pat- (patvâz, → correspond), pa- (panâh, padid), from Mid.Pers. pât-, from O.Pers. paity "agaist, back, opposite to, toward, face to face, in front of," Av. paiti, akin to Skt. práti "toward, against, again, back, in return, opposite," Pali pati-, Gk. proti, pros "face to face with, toward, in addition to, near;" PIE *proti.


Fr.: contrebalance   

An equal weight, power, or influence acting in opposition.

counter-; → balance.

pâdsâ'atsu (#)

Fr.: en sens inverse des aiguilles d'une montre   

In a direction opposite to the rotating hands of a clock.

From counter- "contrary; opposite; opposing," + → clockwise.

Pâdsâ'atsu, from pâd-, → counter-, + sâ'atsu, → clockwise.


Fr.: contre-exemple   

Logic: An individual case or instance that falsifies a universal generalization. A counterexample to an → argument is a situation in which the → premises are → true, but the → conclusion is → false. For example, "All dogs are mammals" (true). "All cats are mammals" (true). "Therefore, all cats are dogs." (false).

counter-; → example.


Fr.: contreflot   

The movement of a fluid in the opposite direction to a fluid flowing in the same cross section of a turbulent medium.

counter-; → flow.


Fr.: gegenschein   

Same as → gegenschein.

hamtâ (#)

Fr.: contrpartie   

A person or thing that corresponds to or has the same function as another person or thing in a different place or situation (
electromagnetic counterpart, → optical counterpart, → radio counterpart.

M.E., from O.Fr. contrepartie, from contre "facing, opposite," → counter-, + partie "copy of a person or thing," originally feminine p.p. of partir "to divide."

Hamtâ "counterpart, resembling, equal," from ham- "together, with; same, equally, even," → com-, + "fold, plait, ply; piece, part," also a multiplicative suffix; Mid.Pers. tâg "piece, part."

pârsang (#)

Fr.: contrepoids   

A weight that balances another weight.

counter-; → weight.

Pârsang "a make-weight," from pâr-, a variant of pâd-, → counter-, + sang a variant of sanj, sanjidan "to measure; compare, put in balance," → object; alternatively, pârsang "a piece of stone," from pâr, short for pâré "piece, part," + sang, → stone, meaning "weight."

electromagnetic counterpart
  همتای ِ برقامغناتی   
hamtâ-ye barqâmeqnâti

Fr.: contrpartie électromagnétique   

An → electromagnetic signal associated with the location on the sky and the time of a → gravitational wave event. The electromagnetic signal is predicted by models to be associated with the → merger of a → compact binary star system composed of two → neutron stars (NS) or a neutron star and a → black hole (BH). Accordingly, the gravitational waves are accompanied by a short-duration → gamma-ray burst (GRB) powered by the → accretion of material that remains in a → centrifugally supported → torus around the BH following the merger. NS-NS/BH-NS mergers are also predicted to be accompanied by a more isotropic counterpart, commonly known as a → kilonova. Kilonovae are day to week-long thermal, → supernova-like → transients, and are powered by the → radioactive decay of heavy, neutron-rich elements synthesized by the → r-process in the expanding merger ejecta (Li and Paczynski 1998). The first detection of an electromagnetic counterpart to gravitational waves belongs to → GW170817.

electromagnetic; → counterpart.

ruyâruyi (#)

Fr.: rencontre   

General: A meeting, especially one that is unplanned, unexpected, or brief. An often violent meeting; a clash.
Coming across of two bodies (as two stars in a cluster) which results in the deviation from original directions of motion. → close encounter; → strong encounter; → weak encounter.

From O.Fr. encountrer "confront," from encontre "against, counter to," from L.L. incontra "in front of," from L. in- "in" + contra "against."

Ruyâruyi "being face to face," from ru, ruy "face, countenance," variant rox (Mid.Pers. rôy, rôdh "face," Av. raoδa- "growth," in plural "appearance," from raod- "to grow, sprout, shoot," cf. Skt. róha- "rising, height") + euphonic interfix -â- + ruy + noun suffix -i.

Geiger counter
  شمارگر ِ گایگر   
šomârgar-e Geiger (#)

Fr.: compteur Geiger   

A device for detecting ionizing radiations, whether corpuscular (α-, β-particles), or electromagnetic (X- and gamma-rays). It consists essentially of a fine wire anode (e.g., tungsten) surrounded by a coaxial cylindrical metal cathode, mounted in a glass envelope containing gas at low pressure. A large potential difference (800 to 2000 volts) is maintained between the anode and the cathode. The ionizing particle can enter through a thin glass or mica window. The particle produces ionization of gas molecules. The ions are accelerated by the electric field and produce more ions by collisions, causing the ionization current to build up rapidly. The current, however, decays quickly since the circuit has a small time constant. There is therefore a momentary potential surge which may be amplified and made to actuate a relay to advance a mechanical counter, or to produce a click in a loudspeaker. Same as Geiger-Mulle counter.

Named after Hans Geiger (1882-1945), the German physicist, who invented the instrument. He is also known for his work on atomic theory and cosmic rays; → counter.

gravitational encounter
  رویارویی ِ گرانشی   
ruyâruyi-ye gerâneši

Fr.: rencontre gravitationnelle   

An encounter in which two moving bodies alter each other's direction and velocity by mutual → gravitational attraction.

gravitational; → encounter.

optical counterpart
  همتایِ نوری   
hamtâ-ye nuri

Fr.: contrepartie optique   

An astronomical object with usually weak emission in the → visible found to be the optical representation of the object radiating chiefly in other → wavelengths of the → electromagnetic spectrum.

optical; → counterpart.

proportional counter
  شمارگر ِ برپارشی   
šomârgar-e barpâreši

Fr.: compteur proportionnel   

A device in which an electronic detection system receives pulses that are proportional to the number of ions formed in a gas-filled tube by ionizing radiation.

proportional; → counter.

pulse counter
  شمارگر ِ تپ   
šomârgar-e tap

Fr.: compteur d'impulsion   

A device that records counts the total number of pulses received over a given time interval.

pulse; → counter.

radio counterpart
  همتای ِ رادیویی   
hamtâ-ye râdio-yi

Fr.: contrepartie radio   

The representation in → radio wavelengths of an astronomical object that has emission in other parts of the → electromagnetic spectrum.

radio; → counterpart.

scintillation counter
  سوسو شمار   
susu šomâr

Fr.: compteur à scintillation   

A device for detecting and measuring ionizing radiation by means of flashes produced when the radiation particles strike a sensitive layer of phosphor.

scintillation; → counter.

strong encounter
  رویارویی ِ سترگ   
ruyâruyi-ye sotorg

Fr.: rencontre proche   

In a star cluster, a → close encounter that strongly changes a star's velocity.

strong; → encounter.

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