Logic: An individual case or instance that falsifies a universal generalization. A counterexample to an → argument is a situation in which the → premises are → true, but the → conclusion is → false. For example, "All dogs are mammals" (true). "All cats are mammals" (true). "Therefore, all cats are dogs." (false).
One of a number of things, or a part of something, taken to show the character of the whole.
From O.Fr. essample, from L. exemplum "a sample," literally "that which is taken out," from eximere "to take out, remove," from → ex- + emere "to obtain, buy," originally "to take," from PIE base *em- "to take" (cf. Av. yam-, yās- "to hold, take hold of," apayeiti (with apa) "taking away a thing from;" O.Pers. āyasa- "to take as one's own;" Skt. yam- "to hold, sustain," yamati "holds, subdues;" O.C.S. imo "to take;" Lith. imti, ima, émé "to take").