gaseous diffusion paxš-e gâzi Fr.: diffusion gazeuse An → isotope separation process using the different diffusion speeds of → atoms or → molecules for separation. This process is used to divide → uranium hexafluoride (UF_{6}) into two separate streams of U-235 and U-238. Before processing by gaseous diffusion, uranium is first converted from → uranium oxide (U_{3}O_{8}) to UF_{6}. The UF_{6} is heated and converted from a solid to a gas. The gas is then forced through a series of compressors and converters that contain porous barriers. Because uranium-235 has a slightly lighter isotopic mass than uranium-238, UF_{6} molecules made with uranium-235 diffuse through the barriers at a slightly higher rate than the molecules containing uranium-238. At the end of the process, there are two UF_{6} streams, with one stream having a higher concentration of uranium-235 than the other (EVS, a Division of Argonne National Laboratory). |
homogeneous linear differential equation hamugeš-e degarsâne-yi-ye xatti hamgen Fr.: équation différentielle linéaire homogène A → linear differential equation if the right-hand member is zero, Q(x) = 0, on interval I. → homogeneous; → linear; → differential; → equation. |
if and only if (iff) agar va ivâz agar, ~ ~ tanhâ ~ Fr.: si et seulement si Logic, Math.: An → expression indicating that two → statements so connected are → necessary and sufficient conditions for one another. The corresponding logical symbols usually used are: ↔, ⇔, ≡, and iff. |
linear differential equation hamugeš-e degarsâne-yi-ye xatti Fr.: équation différentielle linéaire An equation in which the → dependent variable y
and all its differential coefficients occur only
in the first degree. A linear differential equation of → order
order n has the form: → linear; → differential; → equation. |
linearized differential equation hamugeš-e degarsâneyi-ye xatti Fr.: équation différentielle linéarisée A differential equation that has been derived from an original nonlinear equation. Linearized, p.p. of → linearize; → differential; → equation. |
magnetic diffusion paxš-e meqnâtisi Fr.: diffusion magnétique The process whereby the magnetic field tends to diffuse across the plasma and to smooth out any local inhomogeneities under the influence of a finite resistance in the plasma. For a stationary plasma the → induction equation becomes a pure → diffusion equation: ∂B/∂t = D_{m}∇^{2}B, where D_{m} = (μ_{0}σ_{0})^{-1} is the → magnetic diffusivity. |
magnetic diffusivity paxšandegi-ye meqnâtisi Fr.: diffusivité magnétique The → diffusion coefficient for a magnetic field. It is expressed as: η = 1/(μ_{0}σ), where μ_{0} is the → magnetic permeability and σ the → conductivity. → magnetic; → diffusivity. |
molecular diffusion paxš-e molekuli Fr.: diffusion moléculaire A mixing process in a → fluid caused by the → random relative motions due to → Brownian motion of the individual particles. See also → eddy diffusion. |
nonhomogeneous linear differential equation hamugeš-e degarsâne-yi-ye xatti nâhamgen Fr.: équation différentielle linéaire non homogène A → linear differential equation if Q(x)≠ 0 on interval I. → nonhomogeneous; → linear; → differential; → equation. |
ordinary differential equation hamugeš-e degarsâneyi-ye šunik Fr.: équation différentielle ordinaire A → differential equation in which the unknown function depends on only one → independent variable, as contrasted with a → partial differential equation. → ordinary; → differential; → equation. |
partial differential equation hamugeš-e degarsâne-yi bâ vâxane-ye pâri Fr.: équation différentielle aux dérivées partielles A type of differential equation involving an unknown function (or functions) of several independent variables and its (or their) partial derivatives with respect to those variables. → partial; → differential; → equation. |
phase difference degarsâni-ye fâz Fr.: différence de phase The difference of phase (usually expressed as a time or an angle) between two periodic quantities which vary sinusoidally and have the same frequency. → phase; → difference. |
potential difference degarsâni-ye tavand Fr.: différence de potentiel Between two points, the work done in taking the unit test object from one point to the other. Potential is a scalar quantity. → potential; → difference. |
radiative diffusion paxš-e tâbeši Fr.: diffusion radiative A process of → radiative transfer in which photons are repeatedly absorbed and re-emitted by matter particles. |
thermal diffusion paxš-e garmâyi Fr.: diffusion thermique A physical process resulting from → temperature gradients in stellar interiors, whereby more highly charged and more massive chemical species are concentrated toward the hottest region of the star, its center. Therefore, thermal diffusion and → gravitational settling tend to make heavier species sink relative to the light ones. |
ultra-diffuse galaxy (UDG) kahkešân-e ultar-paxšide Fr.: galaxie ultra-diffuse A galaxy of low stellar density, defined to have low central → surface brightness (> 24 mag arcsec^{-2}) and an → effective radius (R_{e}) of over 1.5 kpc. The question of whether UDGs represent a separate class of galaxies is still under debate. Currently, known UDGs that have been discovered in clusters, in groups, and in the field can have R_{e} as large as 5 kpc which is comparable to that of giant Milky Way like galaxies. This fact has been used to suggest that UDGs are "failed" giants. As R_{e} captures (at most) the central parts of giant galaxies, whether this radius can be used to fairly compare the sizes of UDGs to the more massive galaxies is questionable (see, e.g., Chamba et al., 2020, A&A 633, L3). Term proposed by van Dokkum et al. (2015), arXiv: 1410.8141v2; → ultra-; → diffuse; → galaxy. |
undifferentiated meteorite šahâbsang-e nâdegarsânidé Fr.: météorite indifférenciée A type of meteorite in which the constituting materials (stone, glass, metal) are mixed together in a disorderly mass, in contrast to → differentiated meteorites. → un-; → differentiated meteorite. |
X-ray diffraction parâš-e partow-e iks Fr.: diffraction de rayons X The diffraction of X-rays by the atoms or ions of a crystal. The wavelength of X-rays are comparable to the size of interatomic spacings in solids. Since the atoms in a crystal are arranged in a set of regular planes, crystals serve as three-dimensional diffraction gratings for X-rays. Planes of repetition within the atomic structure of the mineral diffract the X-rays. The pattern of diffraction thus obtained is therefore used to identify minerals by bombarding them with X-rays. → X-ray; → diffraction. |