Fr.: problème de luminosité
Low-mass → protostars are about an order of magnitude less luminous than expected. Two possible solutions are that → low-mass stars form slowly, and/or protostellar → accretion is episodic. The latter accounts for less than half the missing luminosity. The solution to this problem relates directly to the fundamental question of the time required to form a low-mass star (McKee & Offner, 2010, astro-ph/1010.4307).
Fr.: relation luminosité-taille
The relation between the stellar luminosity of a galaxy and its physical size. More at → mass-size relation.
Fr.: intensité lumineuse
A measure of the amount of light that a point source radiates in a given direction. It is expressed by the luminous flux per unit leaving the source in the direction per unit of solid angle.
Lysithea (Jupiter X)
The eleventh of Jupiter's known satellites; it is 36 km across and orbits Jupiter at a distance of about 11,720,000 km with a period of 259 days. It was discovered by S. Nicholson in 1938.
Lysithea was a daughter of Oceanus and one of Zeus' lovers.
magnetic flux density
cagâli-ye šâr-e meqnâtisi (#)
Fr.: densité du flux magnétique
A vector quantity measuring the strength and direction of the magnetic field. It is the → magnetic flux per unit area of a magnetic field at right angles to the magnetic force. Magnetic flux density is expressed in → teslas. Also called → magnetic induction.
Fr.: intensité magnétique
Strength of a magnetic field at a point, denoted H. The force which could be exerted on unit north magnetic pole situated at that point. Measured in oersteds. Same as → magnetic field strength.
Fr.: densité massique
The mass per unit area of the ring material, integrated through the thickness of the ring. Sometimes called → surface density (Ellis et al., 2007, Planetary Ring Systems, Springer).
Fr.: rapport masse-luminosité
The ratio of the mass of a system, expressed in solar masses, to its visual luminosity, expressed in solar luminosities. The Milky Way Galaxy has a mass-luminosity ratio in its inner regions of about 10, whereas a rich cluster of galaxies such as the Coma Cluster has a mass-luminosity ratio of about 200, indicating the presence of a considerable amount of dark matter.
Fr.: relation masse-luminosité
A relationship between luminosity and mass for stars that are on the main sequence, specifying how bright a star of a given mass will be. Averaged over the whole main sequence, it has been found that L = M3.5, where both L and M are in solar units. This means, for example, that if the mass is doubled, the luminosity increases more than 10-fold.
maximum density of water
cagâli-ye bišine-ye âb
Fr.: densité maximale de l'eau
The density of pure water occurring at 3.98 °C, which is 1.0000 g cm-3, or 1000 kg m-3. Water when cooled down contracts normally until the temperature is 3.98 °C, after which it expands. Because the maximum density of water occurs at about 4 °C, water becomes increasingly lighter at 3 °C, 2 °C, 1 °C, and 0 °C (→ freezing point). The density of liquid water at 0 °C is greater than the density of frozen water at the same temperature. Thus water is heavier as a liquid than as a solid, and this is why ice floats on water. When a mass of water cools below 4 °C, the density decreases and allows water to rise to the surface, where freezing occurs. The layer of ice formed on the surface does not sink and it acts as a thermal isolator, thus protecting the biological environment beneath it. This property of water liquid is very unusual; molecules pack more closely than in the crystal structure of ice. The reason is that → hydrogen bonds between liquid water are not stable, they are continuously broken and new bonds are created. In the crystal structure of ice molecules have a fixed pattern creating empty space between molecules.
Fr.: position moyenne
Same as → mean place.
Fr.: proposition moléculaire
Fr.: relation morphologie-densité
An observationally determined relationship between the → morphological classification of galaxies and the → environments in which they are located. Specifically, the morphology-density relation indicates that early-type galaxies (→ ETG) are preferentially located in high density environments, whereas late-type galaxies (→ LTG) are preferentially found in low density environments. Hence, spiral galaxies are rare in the high densities of clusters and are common in the lower density group environments. Early-type galaxies, on the other hand, are common in clusters and are rarely found in isolation.
1) A nebulous form, shape, or mass.
1) The fact of being necessary or indispensable.
neutral density filter
pâlâye-ye cagâli-ye natâr
Fr.: filtre neutre
A filter having a flat response over the range of wavelengths of interest. Also called neutral filter or gray filter.
North Polar Layered Deposits (NPLD)
Lerdhâ-ye Laye-laye-ye Qotb-e Hudar
Fr.: couches de dépôt du pôle nord
A large area of the north polar region of Mars which is covered with alternating layers of water ice and dust. → South Polar Layered Deposits.
cagâli-ye haste-yi (#)
Fr.: densité nucléaire
The density of an atomic nucleus (about 1014 g/cm3).
Fr.: densité nmérique
Number of a particular type of object found in each unit volume.